The purpose of this paper is to econometrically clarify the demand structure for beef in Japan by disaggregating beef into four classes and considering the non-stationarity of time series data, and then to consider the impact of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement on the domestic production of beef. The main analysis results are as follows. First, demand for imported meats are more elastic to own price and meat expenditure compared with demand for domestically produced meats. Second, the TPP Agreement will not significantly affect the quantities demanded for Japanese beef and hybridize type beef but will decrease the quantity demanded for dairy beef by 8.6%. Third, the situation after the TPP Agreement came into effect will be different from the situation after the beef tariffication; thus, we cannot expect a mitigation effect of trade liberalization impacts, such as compensating for the decrease in production of dairy beef by the increase in production of Japanese beef.
Our study examines farmers’ crop choice to investigate the motivation behind the recent coffee production decrease in Chumphon, a southern province of Thailand. Through a choice experiment based on a random parameter logit model, which takes into account farmers’ heterogeneous preferences for commodities, we find that the constraint on hiring labor induces farmers to refrain from replanting new coffee trees. In addition, the coffee tree aging problem induces the removal of old coffee trees, but does not affect significantly the replanting of new coffee trees when the hiring labor constraint is not imposed in the experiment. This seems to suggest that, since coffee has only one harvesting opportunity in a year, the constraint on hiring harvesting labor amplifies the income uncertainty of coffee management.
The objective of this study is to assess global and regional effects of climate change on the agricultural sector under nascent multiple socio-economic scenarios. Simulated Evaluation Model for Environmental Damage and Adaption (EMEDA) results indicate that farmers and agricultural officials should pay more attention to which shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) scenario our society takes, rather than to representative concentration pathways (RCPs) scenarios, to address the goal of the 2°C target. Japan incurs many economic damages under the SSP3 scenario while other regions maintain or grow their economies.
This study examines the relation between increasing trade agreements and trade flow performance in the Asia-Pacific region. Network analysis is employed to scrutinize the relationship between the two networks (the trade agreement and trade flow networks). Major findings are: 1) both networks in the region have expanded, and their relationships have deepened, 2) there is a positive correlation between the two networks, 3) the level of China's constraint on other countries increased, while Japan's status decreased in the trade network, 4) United States' status declined in the trade flow network, but its constraint power over primary agricultural trade increased.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of tariff reduction and mixed fiscal policy on the Kenyan economy. The study assumes a close relationship between fiscal policy and economic welfare. In this regard, the 2009 Social Accounting Matrix and the Kenyan Macro Computable General Equilibrium model are used to evaluate the economic welfare and subsequent changes in both domestic production of various sectors and imports from outside economies. As a result, we found that when the target industries are food manufacturing and food processing industries, like coffee and tea, the welfare measure for households improves greatly.
Using a recent community-level data from Ethiopia, this study employed a Tobit model and investigates factors affecting participation rate in agricultural cooperatives. The average participation rate was calculated to be 50.3%, with a wide variation amongst communities. Our result confirms that access to paved road, average landholding of a household and information access have a significant effect on community-level participation rate in agricultural cooperatives. Based on the results of the study, policy implications are forwarded.
This study was conducted to investigate the villagers' willingness to work (WTW) or willingness to pay (WTP) to promote community-based marine protected areas (MPAs) as a way of ensuring sustainability of coastal conservation initiatives. Results confirmed that in general, local residents are willing to voluntarily provide labor or money to help in patrolling and monitoring to maintain the ecological balance of the coastal and marine resources. The quantitative values and the determining factors that influence the WTW and WTP derived from this study can provide insights to resource managers and policy makers in coastal resource management.
This study investigates the determinants of participation in the different types of non-farm activities (self-managed business and wage labor) in rural Ghana, with a focus on gender differences and the availability of various kinds of individually managed agricultural assets. The main results are as follows. The productive assets a woman individually manages had a significantly positive effect on the probability of participation in a self-managed business. However, this relationship was not found in the case of men's participation or in engagement in wage labor of both sexes. Women's own asset management could promote their participation in self-managed businesses.