The aim of this paper is to reveal why animators working in Japan don’t regard their low-paid and long-time work as problems. Previous studies haven’t theoretically considered animators’labor process. Instead, this paper revealed relations between their occupational norms and their logic of acceptance of bad work conditions with ethnomethodological analysis of interviews.
The conclusion of this paper is as follows: Firstly, there are two types of norms in animators’workplace. One is“artisan”norm, which means that animators should follow instructions of upstream workers, the other is“creator”norm, which means that animators should show their originality. Artisan norm is superior to creator norm. Secondly, understanding and using skillfully these norms is a kind of requirement to be a competent animator. Thirdly, both norms have a common feature, which means that animators should have high-level techniques. Sustained by this common feature, animators compete for higher skills. However, their competition has been intensified because there are many cases that high skill workers can’t earn appropriate wages by some institutional factors. As a result, animators who earn wages to manage to make their living become relative winners. However low-paid their labors are, animators who can make their living are winners, and so they don’t tend to regard their work condition as problems.
The utilization of Dependent Contractor spreads worldwide. In such inside, ILO adopted a Employment Relationship Recommendation in 2006. Though Dependent Contractor resembles a worker in the operation actual situation, it is excluded from an application of the labor law. Employment Relationship Recommendation showed it what kind of case Dependent Contractor was targeted for an application of the labor law in. As stated above, the study on Dependent Contractor attracts attention globally, but there are few accumulations of the study in Japan. Therefore, in this article, I analyze the factor of the long working hours of Dependent Contractor. In other words, in this article, I perform comparison between long working hours of Dependent Contractor and not long working hours of Dependent Contractor analysis. And I clarify what kind of case Dependent Contractor reaches the long working hours in. This study reveals that the following points. （1）Dependent Contractor as the labor contract of unstable in the labor days is their indirect factor of long working hours. And Dependent Contractor as prime contractor of the materials carrier of unstable in the labor days is their direct factor of long working hours. （2）Dependent Contractor becomes unstable in the labor days in the following cases. Firstly, When Dependent Contractor works exclusively in a particular company and the particular construction. Secondly, When Dependent Contractor does not have technology and the ability that can differentiate oneself. Thirdly, Dependent Contractor has savings toward only an amount of money to feel life uneasiness.