There have been many reports of information being released without permission. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate to suppress the rationalization of unauthorized bringing-out of information from the perspective of the “awareness” requirements of the ISO/IEC 27001 by using the fraud triangle theory. We consider the three latent variables, namely, “policy”, “contribution”, and “effects of non-compliance” exhibit the effect of suppressing the rationalization of unauthorized bringing-out of information. We construct a model to test our hypotheses and performed covariance structure analysis and multiple group covariance structure analysis based on the questionnaire survey data. Our sample consist of member groups of an organization with and without the ISO/IEC 27001 certification. As a result, we confirmed our hypotheses partially and found that the requirements that shall be improved the perception differed from group to group.
The problem of asset formation and withdrawal after retirement in Japan is increasingly gaining interest with societal aging and longevity. However, asset depletion-related issues, including measures to prevent them, are underexplored. In this paper, we approach Japan’s current asset formation and withdrawal after retirement through simulation analysis using actual data. We analyze the impact of various asset depletion measures in exogenous scenarios based on individual attributes and risk asset investment. The main results are as follows. 1) Asset depletion rate varies between asset classes, risk amounts, and expected lives. 2) Asset depletion rate does not decrease monotonically as the asset class rises. 3) Taking risks according to individual attributes is necessary to reduce asset depletion rate. 4) If asset depletion rate increases due to reduced public pension benefit level, the increase can be suppressed to a certain extent by raising the retirement age or curbing spending.