Study objective: To train participants to select low-caloriefood, rather than high-calorie food, when eating between-meal snacks. Design: A multiple-baseline design was used. A follow-up survey was conducted immediately, 1 month, and 1 year after the end of the experiment. Sett/ngs: The intervention was done in participant's daily lives. Participants: Participants were 3 overweight male college students. Intervention: The intervention included point-gain and point-loss systems. Measure: Each day during the study, the caloric value of all snacks and of the low-caloriefood eaten was calculated, and the weight of the participants was measured. Results: Eating low-calorie food increased when the intervention was a combination of a point-gain and a point-loss system. After the intervention, participant had lost between 3 and 8 kg, compared with their base-line weight, however, the follow-up survey revealed that only 1 of the 3 participants had maintained his weight loss. Conclusion: Focusing on between-meal snacks and reinforceing the target behavior by using self-recording and a Point-loss system was an effective intervention for obesity, But for long-term maintenance, continued self-recording is indispensable.
In Japan, some dogs are kept indoors by their owners and never allowed outside. These "inside dogs" are trained to eliminate in a container like a cat's litter box, which is lined with a "pet sheet," i.e., specially treated absorbent paper. Study objective: to investigate whether if dogs were reinforced for eliminating on the pet sheet, they would learn to eliminate there without prior prompting. Design: After a baseline period, intervention was carried out, and than a follow up done. Setting: indoor locations, such as a home or workplace. Participants: 1 female and 3 male puppies and their owners. Intervention: when the dog eliminated on the pet sheet without prompting, or after having been taken to the pet sheet, the owner reinforced the dog's behavior. Measure: The percentage of eliminations that were on the pet sheet was measured. Results: 3 of the puppies learned to eliminate on the pet sheet, although one of those only used the sheet for urination. The remaining dog did not learn. Conclusion: Reinforcing eliminating on the pet sheet was effective for training "inside puppies". Owners should take their dog to a pet sheet when the dog seems about to eliminate, and reinforce the behavior of eliminating in the correct Location.
Study objectives: The purpose of the present study was to analyze everyday behavior, specifically, whether the interval between train arrivals would influence passengers' behavior of arriving at the platform. Design: The pattern of the number of people arriving at a platform during the interval between trains was compared at 3 stations where the intervals between train arrivals differed. Settings: The study was conducted at 3 stations in the Kansai district (western Japan) at which only local train stopped. Participants: All passengers boarding trains on the selected platforms during the observation period were participants. Independent variable: The number of trains arriving at a station per hour (2, 6, or 12) was the Independent variable. Results: The longer the interval between trains, the more people tended to arrive at the platform just before the train came. Conclusion: The present results suggest that the arrival of trains functions like a reinforcer, so that the interval between trains functions like a reinforcement schedule.