A framework for analyzing and creating teaching materials on the history of science was developed by analyzing seven different teaching materials about Pasteur. This framework is constructed according to four main sections: 1. Purpose of teaching the history of science, II. Resources used to make teaching materials, III. The content of the teaching materials, IV. The structure of the 1esson or lecture.
Analyzing further these seven teaching materials on Pasteur using this framework, the following conclusions were made. 1. As for the purpose, the teaching materials were divided mainly into two types: (1) centering on science as inquiry, (2) including ‘Science and Society’ and ‘Science and Humanities’. 2. The Resources were classified into six types. The teaching materials for ‘Science and Society’ and ‘Science and Humanities’ derived from the literature of ‘History of Science’. 3. The contents centered on one or several of: (1) the individual scientist (2) the development of the scientific concept (3) the opposition to the scientific concept (4) the development of technology. 4. There were various different structures in the lessons or lectures, depending upon the style of the individual teachers.
This framework may be applied to analyze/develop teaching materials relating to other scientists.
This research aimed to find out the effectiveness of activity-based materials on students’ learning process using the Project WILD which is an environmental education program focused on wildlife. This consists of over 100 activity-based materials which teachers are expected to use. The researcher used one activity entitled “Oh Deer” and tried it out at the 3rd grade level in junior high school. This activity aims to enable students to gain understanding about the change of animal population over several years.
The result showed that the students participated in the class activity more positively than in the usual classroom situation. They had a better understanding ahout the change of population, the influence of environmental factors on the life of animals, and so on. It was suggested that these activity-based teaching materials were effective in the teaching learning process.
The biology web teaching material “THE LIFE OF BRYOPHYTES” (Sato 2004) was evaluated in high school biology class. All students in the experimental group used the web teaching material on their own to study the life cycle of the bryophytes. Using real plants for hands-on activity, the students observed the egg cells of female receptacles of Marchantia polymorpha. In contrast, the students in the control group learned the same topics from the teacher’s explanation using textbook and sub-textbook instead of the above-mentioned method.
Analysis of the questionnaire after the trial revealed, that half of the students had not observed Marchantia polymorpha in the class activity. 74% of students in the experimental group appreciated the web teaching material, especially the clarity of the photographs. However, they pointed out, that it was time consuming moving from one page to another. Nevertheless, they became interested in the topic of reproduction and in doing hands-on activities
From the result of the student attainment test, most of the students both the experimental and control group drew the life cycles of bryophytes and ferns correctly. However, 60% of experimental group and 8% of control group were able to draw the life cycle particularly the asexual reproduction by gemma correctly. Showing effectiveness of the web teaching material in the life cycle of bryophytes, students answered the questionnaire by writing the items such as egg cell, fertilized egg and spore, which were related to fertilization.
These results show that using the web teaching material, students were able to understand effectively the outline of the life cycle and the concept of fertilization.
The glucose concentrations in germinating buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) seeds that absorb water were determined by a commercially-available urine test strips. The findings are as follows:
1. The glucose concentrations in germinating buckwheat seeds showed the maximum value at day 2 of germination. At the same time, the glucose concentration variances along with germination were with in the optimum range for observations using the test strips.
2. The glucose concentrations determined with the test strips were somewhat higher than those obtained with a biochemical procedure (the glucose-oxidase peroxidase method).
3. It was found that the homogenate of ground germinating seeds alone was satisfactory for the determination of glucose concentrations using the test strips.
Germinated seedlings of Allium cepa are suitable material for observing mitosis because they are easy to grow in a short time, and for finding mitotic cells with a simple staining method. The mitotic index which indicate the frequency of mitotic cells in the root meristem with 5-10 mm of root lengh at 23°C usually was higher than that with other root length. Under this temperature, the roots of most seedlings reached to 5 - 10 mm long within 3 or 4 days. When the class schedule changes, it is necessary to adjust the condition of seedling containing many mitotic cells. The way of maintaining the condition of the seedling was through refrigeration and then removal from the refrigerator after some days for observation of mitosis. These experiences suggested the followings: The mitotic index depends on the root length and not the temperature, therefore there is no difference between low temperature (2 - 3°C) and room temperature (23°C). Under low temperature the seedlings grew slowly and the majority became 5 - 10mm for three weeks after sown. Their mitotic index was similar to the seedling grown 5 - 25 mm in room temperature, therefore we can make seedlings from the higher frequency of mitotic cells when we change the schedule of school experiments. The seed stored with silica gel in a paper envelope and enclosed in a plastic bag for five years in a refrigerator and the mitotic index was examined when their seedling is 1 - 25 mm.