A framework for analyzing and creating teaching materials on the history of science was developed by analyzing seven different teaching materials about Pasteur. This framework is constructed according to four main sections: 1. Purpose of teaching the history of science, II. Resources used to make teaching materials, III. The content of the teaching materials, IV. The structure of the 1esson or lecture.
Analyzing further these seven teaching materials on Pasteur using this framework, the following conclusions were made. 1. As for the purpose, the teaching materials were divided mainly into two types: (1) centering on science as inquiry, (2) including ‘Science and Society’ and ‘Science and Humanities’. 2. The Resources were classified into six types. The teaching materials for ‘Science and Society’ and ‘Science and Humanities’ derived from the literature of ‘History of Science’. 3. The contents centered on one or several of: (1) the individual scientist (2) the development of the scientific concept (3) the opposition to the scientific concept (4) the development of technology. 4. There were various different structures in the lessons or lectures, depending upon the style of the individual teachers.
This framework may be applied to analyze/develop teaching materials relating to other scientists.
Germinated seedlings of Allium cepa are suitable material for observing mitosis because they are easy to grow in a short time, and for finding mitotic cells with a simple staining method. The mitotic index which indicate the frequency of mitotic cells in the root meristem with 5-10 mm of root lengh at 23°C usually was higher than that with other root length. Under this temperature, the roots of most seedlings reached to 5 - 10 mm long within 3 or 4 days. When the class schedule changes, it is necessary to adjust the condition of seedling containing many mitotic cells. The way of maintaining the condition of the seedling was through refrigeration and then removal from the refrigerator after some days for observation of mitosis. These experiences suggested the followings: The mitotic index depends on the root length and not the temperature, therefore there is no difference between low temperature (2 - 3°C) and room temperature (23°C). Under low temperature the seedlings grew slowly and the majority became 5 - 10mm for three weeks after sown. Their mitotic index was similar to the seedling grown 5 - 25 mm in room temperature, therefore we can make seedlings from the higher frequency of mitotic cells when we change the schedule of school experiments. The seed stored with silica gel in a paper envelope and enclosed in a plastic bag for five years in a refrigerator and the mitotic index was examined when their seedling is 1 - 25 mm.