The present research has endeavored to examine to what extent the value of SCL and the process of change in SCL in the biofeedback training combined with relaxation training will reflect the subjects neurotic tendency. The following are the suggestions obtained from the result of this research. Compared with the normal subjects (A), and the neurotic subjects suffering from obsession, compulsion and hypochondria (C), the neurotic subjects whose main symptoms are anxiety and fear (B) seem to show a higher SCL value. Also, in the biofeedback training combined with relaxation training, the declining tendency of SCL of the B group is more remarkable than that of A and C.
In auditory alpha biofeedback, a subject is used to sit in a chair and adopt his usual meditative posture in aquiet, moderately illuminated room. It is considered that appreciation of biofeedback in disturbing circumstances enlarge the value of the biofeedback technique. Our study was designed to examine the effects of auditory biofeedback in variousauditory disturbing circumstances. After the auditory alpha biofeedback pre-training, 8 subjects were devided into 2 groups, Group F-C and Group C-F. In Group F-C, auditory feedback was employed in the 1st experiment, but not in the 2nd experiment. In group C-F, the order was reversed. Both experiments consisted of 3 courses (each 10 trials). In each trial, firstly a subject was in a quiet room, and subsequently in a auditory disturbing circumstance. A subject received the auditory disturbance produced by tape recorder. Music, interesting speech and uninteresting speech had tape recorded for disturbances. It is beleved that the auditory signals are transmittered finally into the common integrative center, where the overall meaning of all combined sensation is determined compared with the memories stored in the brain. The feedback signals from this areas are transmitted into the thalamic-cortex system. The rhythmic activty of the cortex, especially the alpha rhythm, is induced largely by the activity of the thalamus. So the alpha rhythm changes of the subjects are determined individually when auditory disturbance are affected. But our experiments suggested the following results qualitatively. Alpha activities are enhanced by musical disturbances, but alpha activities are inhibited by disturbances including speeches. In the case of music, enhancement ratio depends on the character of the music, and in the case of speech, inhibiting ratio are correlated with interest for the subject. In musical disturbance, the effectiveness of biofeedback training is decreased trial by trial, but in disturbance including speech, it is increased trial by trial from beginning to the 5th trial approximately, and then deceased by degress. From the results of these experiments, it was found that auditory biofeedback indicate training effects even in auditory disturbing cirumstances. But the effects were different individually from the characters of the disterbances and the subjects' personalities.
also inhibits the appearance of Fmθ The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effect of Fmθ biofeedback (BF) training upon the appearance of Fmθactivity, compared with both intact control (CN) and autogenic training (AT) groups. Twenty-four university students (all females) were served as subjects. They were assigned into one of three groups, i.e., group-AT, -BF, and -CN. Six of 8 subjects in each group were rich in Fmθ activity in the preliminary experiment. In the group-BF, auditory BF training was performed 5 times within 2 weeks. In group-AT, the standard exercise of AT. Was run within the same period. In group-CN, no treatment was run for 2 weeks. We compared the Fmθ activity in the pre- and post- training sessions (Test-1 and Test-2, two weeks apart). In each test session subjects performed continuous adding task with modified Uchida-Kraepelin Test Sheet for five min without any other treatment, I.e., without BF in group-BF. Only in the group-BF the mean duration of Fmθ bursts increased from Test-1 to Test-2. Additionally, in the group-BF, the mean appearance time of Fmθ per 3-min increased between pre- and post-BF non-feedback control sessions in the last two training days. Such effects were almost statistically significant (p<.10). Mean eyeblink rate in the group-BF decreased both from Test-1 to Test-2 and from pre- to post-BF non-feedback control sessions in all training days. State anxiety scores (STAI-I) also significantly decreased from Test-1 to Test-2 in all groups. In the group-BF, the score of STAI for each training day did not changed from pre- to post-sessions. All subjects in the group-BF reported they could acquire the awareness of Fmθ appearance as a result of biofeedback training of Fmθ. But only one subject reported she could control the appearance of Fmθ voluntarily. The results suggest that it will be possible for all subjects to control the appearance of Fmθ with its biofeedback training, if the training would be lasted more. It is expected that the biofeedback training of Fmθ would be effective to relaxation and to concentration in mental activity.
The previous study reported that it was possible for sinus bradycardic subjects to increase their heart rate voluntarily if their conduction system was free from disease. As sinus bradycardia and related diseases are one of pathophysiological concomitants of aging, our next concern to elucidate whether agining might influence any noxious effect on self regulatory potentiality of heart rate speeding. 35 sinus bradycardic subjects were divied into two groups which were consisted of the elderly subjects, and the adults and adolescent subjects. Biofeedback control of heart rate increase was performed at the mean of 3.4 sessions in the elderly group, and 2.5 sessions in the other group. The results showed that both groups were able to speed up their heart rate, and the heart beats increase seemed more prominent as subjects were more bradycardic. It is concluded that elderly subjects are able to speed up their heart beats without moving or respiratory maneuvers if their conduction system was without disease.
The performance of subjects receiving integrated, binary, and proportional feedback during an occipital alpha enhancement task are contrasted in the present study. 45 subjects were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups. Auditory feedback was used in all three groups. The treatment sequence for subjects in each group included a 5 minute baseline period followed by a 3 minute "free play" period and 5 consecutive 3 minute feedback training periods. Alpha activity was defind as EEC activity between 8 and 13 Hz (measured with eyes closed). Feedback for the integrated and binary groups was a 550 Hz tone. Subjects in the integrated group received 5 seconds of feedback if their cumulative integrated alpha during the previous 5 second period was greater than or equal to 50% of the value obtained by averaging sixty 5 second periods of cumulative integrated alpha measured during the base- line period. The binary group subjects received feed- back when their alpha production exceeded the mean alpha amplitude obtained during the baseline period. Feedback for the proportional group consisted of a tone which varied linearlly between 300 (no alpha) and 700 (maximum alpha) Hz. Results indicated that alpha enhancement in the integrated feedback group was significantly greater than that of the other two groups. The treatment effect was significant only for the integrated feedback group.