Two young cerebral palsied subjects with spasticity were given multi-site EMG biofeedback training in a kneeling posture. Surface electrodes were placed over the rectus femoris muscles and the biceps femoris muscles. The EMG signals were amplified and converted to a graphic pattern on a CRT controlled by a micro-computer. The graphic pattern was a cartoon character. The size of the character's face changed proportionally to the activity of the rectus femoris muscles and its nose changed in accordance with the activity of the biceps femoris muscles. The right and left of the face and nose corresponded, respectively, to the sudject's right and left side muscles. Subjects were instructed to draw a good graphic pattern on the CRT by maintaining body coordination. At the same time, binary feedback was used to monitor overall success during training. For each of the four muscle group / body side EMG channels, a threshold mean and standard deviation was computed for a baseline session. During training, the color of the cartoon character's nose and face changed to reflect success(white or blue) or failure(red or yellow) in meeting a criterion set for each channel. During the time all four criteria were met, a beep sounded repeatedly. Results showed that differential relaxation and tension of appropriate muscle groups were rapidly mastered during the training phase. After completion of training, the sudjects' posture without feedback was improved.
When some stimuli are given while we are at rest, the stimuli desynchronize the alpha rhythm. We should not be destroyed our mental stability by innumerable stimuli which are not so important for us. As for the repeated stimuli, many experiments on habituation of the arousal reaction have been made (e.g. Sharpless, s., Japer. H.H. 1956). Habituation is based on the learning function in the neurological control system. The aim of this study is to assess the possibility of auditory alpha feedback addition to the habituation to decrease the alpha blocking time. To applicate the feedback training to keep the mental stability in stimulative circumstance is useful for the daily life. This study is constructed with three experiments. In every experiment, we examined the alpha blocking in relaxation and during the feedback training period. Eight healthy students were used as subjects. In Experiment I. we examined the alpha blocking when the same impulse stimuli were given continuously. In Experiment II, we examined the alpha blocking when the different impulse stimuli were given irregularly. And in Experiment III. we examined the mean percetage time alpha changes while discrete stimuli (sampling period 3s) were given. The photo- and phono-stimuli used in our experiments were as follows. photo-stimuli : 40J, 20J, 1J phono-stimuli : sound frequency pure tone(4kHz, 1kHz), white noize. sound pressure 95dB, 50dB From the above three experiments, it is presumed that the auditory alpha feedback can available to decrease the alpha blocking time addition to the habituation in stimulative circumstance. According to the results of the subjective reports after experiments, the strong impulse stimuli, as 40J, 95dB-white noize, gave the subject psychological feeling, e.g. fear, terror, or aversion. In the case of such stimuli are given, it is s supposed that the feedback trainings are more available for us. As Mulholland. T. et al. reported, the effect of the biofeedback training is related to the subject's attention. In this experiment, the percentage time alpha during the feedback training in the circumstance without stimuli was considerably higher than the percentage time alpha in the circumstance with stimuli. When any external stimulus which is no important is given during the feedback training, the subject should prefer the feedback stimulus to the external stimulus. So, during the feedback training period, subject's intention and volition plays an important role in alpha blocinking time decreasing.
Efforts were made in the present study to investigate the role played by mental strategy in biofeedback traiing using SCL as index. With SCL as index biofeedback training was given to 36 subjects classified into 2 groups : Group A-18 people who had been given self-control training (breath restraining training and autogenic traiing)-and Group B (controlled group) -18 people who had never been given such training. As a result of this study, it has been made clear that the ability to self-control emotional stability was heigtened among Group A, while no such phenonomenon was observed among Group B, It was therefore suggested that in order to heighten the subjects' self-control ability for emotional stability in the biofeedback training using SCL as index, not only their intention to attain self-control and the continual recognition of their emotional stability, but their mental strategy IS a vital and indispensable element. It has also been suggested that mental strategy is indispensable also in attaining the self-control of emotional stability itself.
In the present study we have performed a skin thermal biofeedback therapy (hereafter abbreviated to BF therapy) in the treatment of chilling sensation remaining in the lower extremity as a postoperative sequel of arteriosclerosis obliterans. Once a week at our outpatient clinic, the skin temperature of the right index finger and the right first toe were mesured and electromyography of the forehead was carried out. A single session was made up of 15 segments, each of which was 2 minutes; 5 segments for baseline and 10 segments for BF. For assessment of therapeutic effect, 24 sessions in total were performed using the parameters of (1) subjective symptoms, (2) peripheral skin temperature and (3) finger plethysmography. As a result, the following were observed : (1) improvement of the subjective symptoms, (2) increased skin temperature on application of BF therapy, and (3) increased amplitude of the pulse wave on finger plethysmograph. There are very few reports on BF therapy for organic vascular dysfunctions, particularly for the arteriosclerosis obliterans : to my knowledge, this is the first report ever published. We report here the improvements in clinical symptoms observed in the present study, where we have intended to maintain the blood flow volume, which tended to decrease due to central blood vessels narrowed by arteriosclerotic change, by controlling the movements of peripheral blood vessels intentionally.
A mathematical model for biofeedback training is presented. The model is composed of the subject and the object of training, together with the signal paths for control and measurement. The behavior of the model is formulated in terms of the probabilities for signal generation, transmission and reception. The biofeedback training is formulated as an algorithm that modifies the probabilities of the signal source. It is shown that by a certain assumption the model is reduced to the traditional simple learning model. The range for the successful biofeedback training as well as the example of successful training are shown.