In the beginning of basic study in Biofeedback therapy, many studies about operant conditioning of autonomic response were emerged from learning psychology. Biofeedback technique has been established in three decade, but essentially it was derived from Skinner's operant conditioning. So it means that reinforcement as an operational defined term includes feedback. In this paper, function and concept in three different types of feedback are considered that is contingencies of reinforcement in Behavior Analysis, stroke in Transactional Analysis and Bateson's epistemology. As a result, function of feedback is considered as an important factor that contributes to behavior change in each field. Concept of feedback must be considered to divide into two phase, one is static and objective information of feedback, the other one is dynamic estimation process in unity. Bateson indicates that we must think part abstract conception from concrete facts of behavior, because they belong to different logical type. Function and concept of feedback are very important for study of behavior change, at the same time it provides theoretical basis to epistemology.
Heart rate variability biofeedback targets the baroreflex system, and thereby helps strengthen one of the body's important self-regulatory reflexes. When people try to increase heart rate variability, they inevitably slow their breathing to about 0.1 Hz, the first resonant frequency of the cardiovascular system. Resonance at that frequency appears to be caused by baroreflex activity. Breathing at this frequency produces very large oscillations in heart rate, entirely at the resonant frequency, and increase baroreflex gain. There is evidence that engaging in this training increases baroreflex gain, improves pulmonary function, improves clinical condition in asthma, and lowers 'blood pressure. The method also may have applications to anxiety, depression, and other disorders related to autonomic dysregulation.
The biofeedback therapy is one of the most popular methods for physiatrist. We use it for patients in order to strengthen muscle power, reduce abnormal muscle tone, improve range of motion and develop ideal motor function in the field of rehabilitation medicine. But the other field of medicine such as internal medicine and surgery, this therapy is not always known well as an effective method for treatment. So it is necessary for patients happiness to let them know the effectiveness of biofeedback therapy and its benefit. In this paper I will show you the diseases that biofeedback therapy is suitable for treating them and the scene of electromyogram (EMG) feedback using portable equipment. You will know the biofeedback therapy is not difficult in clinical use. Recently the biofeedback therapy is used for the patients of dysphagia to improve their swallowing function. For example in stroke patients EMG activity of the muscles that are concerned with swallowing is lower in paretic side than that in non-paretic side. So we can use the biofeedback therapy to strengthen the muscles around the throat in paretic side. Further more there is a new method to improve tongue movement using ultra sound. I also show you these new applications of biofeedback therapy and think about new epoch of this therapy.
To better understand conditions in which lavender aromatherapy could have sedative effects, its effects were examined in patients undergoing surgery with local anesthesia. Cardiovascular and self-report measures were obtained from 25 inpatients just before (PRE) and at about 10 min after the start of operation (DUR). A lavender-scented pillow was used for 13 experimental patients in the DUR period, whereas an ordinary pillow was used for 12 control patients. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate were lower in the experimental group than in the control group in both PRE and DUR periods. In both groups, systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased from the PRE to DUR periods. Heart rate did not change between the two periods. Tension versus Calmness in the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List showed an expected contrast: decrease from the PRE to DUR period in Tension, in contrast with the opposite in Calmness. From the viewpoint of the hemodynamic mechanisms of blood pressure alterations, supplemented by the self-report data, the sedative effects of lavender aromatherapy was not demonstrated, at least, in the present study.
Although the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO_2) is a noninvasive, continuous method for measuring respiratory function and is used frequently in applied psychophysiological research, there is much confusion over the relationship between PetCO_2 and psychophysiological relaxation. Some studies have shown that an increment in PetCO_2 reflects relaxation, whereas others have claimed that an elevated PetCO_2 is a sign of stress responses. Therefore, this study was designed to clarify the relationship between PetCO_2 and relaxation. Twelve healthy subjects participated in the following three sessions: 20-min baseline rest (BL), 60-min respiratory self-control, and 5-min post-trial rest (PO). The respiratory self-control session consisted of two tasks, in which the subjects were required to increase (INC) or decrease (DEC) their PetCO_2 level using PetCO_2 and respiration rate biofeedback for 30 min each. All of the subjects succeeded in decreasing their PetCO_2 significantly during the DEC trial. As half of the subjects showed decrements in their PetCO_2 during INC, there was no significant increment in the mean PetCO_2 from BL. Seven of 12 subjects reported that they were more relaxed during DEC than during INC, because they found it easier to decrease PetCO_2 than to increase it. These results suggest that self-control of PetCO_2 can mislead novice subjects to mild hyperventilation, and that PetCO_2 biofeedback-assisted relaxation should not be a general relaxation method, but a specific method used to treat patients with hyperventilation.
One of the critical issues in biofeedback training is to assess the skill or extent of belief that the trainee has acquired up to the present stage, as a result of the training. It is a conjecture, but seems probable that the observation of the behavior of the trainee is useful, when he is given a feedback, which is not a faithful representation of what has actually occurred. When the trainee has a firm belief as to what the correct action is to induce the desired event, he will not be affected by a disturbing feedback. While, when the trainee is skeptical of how he should act, he will be disturbed greatly. Of course, this kind of test should not be continued for long since the state of the trainee may change, and there may also be an objection form ethical viewpoint in cheating the trainee. In this study, the situation is simplified to examine the possibility of the above idea. The probabilistic model is constructed, where the major parameters are the probability of the trainee to act correctly, and the probability of the system to feedback honestly or dishonestly. As an example of a task, which is not very easy, the examinee is instructed to watch the flexor Capri ulnaris EMG signal, as well as the feedback signal, to maintain some 10 to 20 % of the maximum voluntary contraction. It is shown, by comparing the result of experiment and the result obtained from the model, that the extent of the belief of the trainee is low at the early stage of experiment, but is gradually improved with the progress of the training, which partially supports the conjecture.