The aims of this study were to analyze the time series of heart rate variability and atrioventricular (AV) conduction time variability in exercise electrocardiogram (ECG), and to evaluate the autonomic effects on sinoatrial node and AV node. Five healthy subjects participated in the present study. Continuous ECG signals were recorded 3 min of sitting on a cycle ergometer at rest, 12 min of exercise, and 15 min of sitting on a chair at post-exercise recovery. The ECG signals were divided into every 30 sec that overlapped 15 sec each other. And then, we extracted P-P, R-R and P-R intervals, and also we calculated the power spectra of these intervals variability. The variance, LF and HF power of heart rate variability (both P-P and R-R intervals) were decreased during exercise compared with rest, in contrast those of AV conduction time variability (P-R intervals) were increased. Additionally, the variance of P-P intervals during exercise was larger than the variance of R-R intervals. Our result of variance suggests that AV conduction time changes to maintain ventricular excitation rhythm stability compared with atrial excitation rhythm. Although the LF and HF power of P-R intervals were increased during exercise compared with rest, we could not conclude that these changes reflected autonomic effects on AV node. It is likely that an increase in the variance of P-R intervals variability, or a decrease in the sinus rhythm is a cause of an increase of LF and HF power.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of competitive stress on CNV and PINV, and to determine whether the impact would have any relation to competitive motive. 20 undergraduate and graduate students, healthy females, were served as subjects. They completed the questionnaire of competitive motive. CNV and PINV were induced with an audio-visual paradigm with a motor task. All subjects were engaged in the following experimental conditions: (I) control condition: completing alone the motor task; (II) competitive condition: competing with a competitor in reaction time (RT) in the same situation. Only the result of winning or losing was presented each trial under competitive condition. The evoked potentials, following an auditory warning stimulus (S1) and a visual imperative stimulus (S2), were analyzed in three time segments: CNV and two adjacent PINV segments after S2 onset (PINV-1 and -2). The CNV amplitudes of winning trials under competitive condition were appeared to be larger than those of control condition. These results indicate that preparation for imperative stimulus is enough to respond as quickly as possible. These potentials were observed at right-frontal site in Low-scored subjects of competitive questionnaire, and in High-scored subjects at parietal midline. The negativity of PINV-1 was higher in competitive condition than in control condition. These differences may be attributed to subjects' expectations of the performance results because they can not see their competitors by partition. Low-scored subjects showed a right-sided predominance of these potentials, whereas High-scored subjects showed a left-sided one. In the PINV-2, second period of PINV, positive component was observed under competitive condition. The positive component is supposed to reflect the perceptual processes for the presented result. These findings suggest that competitive stress would impact on CNV and PINV, and the different topography could represent asymmetry of hemispheric function according to competitive motive.
We previously demonstrated the efficacy of biofeedback (BF) therapy using electroencephalograms (indirect method) and BF therapy using a monitoring system for hospital wards and elsewhere (harmonized alert sensing technology: HASTE function) (indirect method) are effective in the treatment of hypertension and white-coat hypertension, and reported that a combination of BF therapy (indirect method) and relaxation therapy was also effective. In the present study, we compared the effects of a combination of the direct method and relaxation therapy (11 cases) for essential hypertension with those of the direct method alone (20 cases). After BF therapy, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, anxiety score, and depression score decreased significantly in both groups. Comparing the two groups, significantly higher effects on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, anxiety score, and depression score were obtained in the combination therapy group than in the monotherapy group. Hence, the combination therapy produced greater reductions in blood pressure and was more effective in ameliorating anxiety and depression compared to the monotherapy by the direct method.
EMG biofeedback therapy has been used to treat writer's cramp to control the shrinkage of an excessive muscle when the patient writes and to help the patient to learn how to write a normal character again. No study has been performed before which looks at an appropriate EMG when EMG biofeedback therapy is undertaken. It is thought that clarifying this appropriate EMG strengthens the patient's appropriate learning, and some therapeutic gain can be achieved. Those that are treated have an objective judgement of the therapeutic gain of the EMG biofeedback. It is necessary to have control data and we have studied healthy university students EMG to clarify this appropriate EMG. Then, 4-channel EMG feedback was performed on a healthy university student and their reactiveness was recorded and compared with the reaction of the EMG in patients diagnosed with writer's cramp. In addition, the numerical value of an appropriate EMG was considered. As a result, the numerical value of the EMG decreased whenever the trial was passed in each index in the EMG of healthy university students, and the effect of the EMG biofeedback was able to be confirmed. Moreover, in the result of the comparison between the reactiveness of the writer's cramp patients and of the healthy university students' EMG, we found that the writer's champ patients become to be able to control in musculus extensor carpi radialis longus in writing letters to the same level as the healthy university students can do, after repeating sessions by the writer's cramp patients. In conclusion, we believe that the result of healthy students being able to control the EMG can be considered as an appropriate control target for patients with writer's cramp.
Efficacy of Bio-feedback (BF) training in patients with incontinence was evaluated using newly designed electromyography of the anal external sphincter muscle (CEMG) which visualized the state of contraction of the sphincter muscle. Twenty-seven patients with incontinence conducted the BF-training for 3 months twice or three times per week. Fifteen out of 27 patients significantly improved the symptom.
Patients of pain disorder often easily adhere to physical symptoms, making psychosocial assessment and intervention difficult. We report a case of pain disorder which use of biofeedback therapy was helpful in evaluation of psychosocial aspects. The case was a 42 year old female. After pinching her left hand finger in a window frame, pain in her hand persisted, while spreading to the whole left upper limb. Although several orthopedists tried medical treatment, the pain did not improve. An anesthesiologist performed stellate ganglion blocking which cleared the pain, but after treatment, the patient complained of paralysis in the upper limbs and loss of consciousness. These symptoms appeared even when saline solution was used, and the paralysis could not be explained neurologically. The physicians suggested psychiatric help, but the patient refused, denying any existence of psychological factors. Since there, this patient consulted several hospitals, and was diagnosed with reflex sympathetic dystrophy at one hospital. She then consulted our department requesting biofeedback therapy. We began biofeedback therapy using electromyograms and autogenic training, while simultaneously performing outpatient treatment biweekly. The patient became aware that biofeedback therapy was effective, and became enthusiastic in participating in treatment. She also began to understand that mental anxiety had influence on her symptoms. In the beginning of treatment, this patient continued to deny any psychological stress and focused only to physical symptoms, but as the treatment progressed, she began to speak of her family problems during biofeedback therapy. In this case, biofeedback therapy was not only useful in encouraging the patient to actively manage the pain and to notice mind-body correlation, but was also meaningful for our understanding of the patient's psychosocial aspects.
The ratio of the elderly population (65 years old and over) exceeded 19% in Japan. According to an estimation by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the ratio was estimated to increase to 26.0% in 2015 and as many as one in four of Japanese population would be 65 or over years. With a super-aging, the number of people with dementia was expected to increase. Some studies reported that mild dementia and MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment) could be treatable or prevented from getting severe by improving lifestyle habits and cognitive rehabilitation. The objective of the present study was to develop a prototype model rehabilitate cognitive function with the Stroop effect task. Performance on the Stroop effect task correlated with higher function within the frontal cortical region and the anterior cingulate cortex. And there was a strong and significant correlation between answer time for CWcard in the task and MMSE (Mini Mental State Examination) or HDS-R (Hasegawa's dementia Scale-Revised). The developed model consisted of a laptop computer and a display with a touch panel and was added biofeedback to function. Programs were written in Visual Basic. One word was displayed for definite period of time on the screen. A Subject determined whether the meaning and the color of the word were same and pushed one of two buttons on the screen respectively written "SAME" and "DIFFERENT". The answer time was measured and fed back to the next display time. 16 task words (four words; RED, YELLOW, GRFEEN, BLUE×four colors; red, yellow, green, blue) were prepared and one word of them is randomly displayed continuously. It showed that person with mild dementia and MCI could receive cognitive rehabilitation by him/herself with this system,