In the recent years, it is necessary to increase in fine elderly people for rapid aging of the population resulting from the decline in the birthrate in Japan. For elderly individuals, who tend to be less physically active, improving both motor and cognitive functions is necessary to live daily life. Previous study, aerobic exercise training had an effect on inhibiting decreasing cognitive function by aging. Recently, there were discussed brain activation and improvement of cognitive performance during passive sway exercise like horse-back riding simulator. We prepared new original passive sway exercise machine and examined the changing of hemodynamic during exercise and with changing exercise speed by using f-NIRS. NIRS probes were placed to focus measurements on the activation in the frontal association area and motor area located in the frontal lobe. Measurement of ten healthy subjects, in the frontal association area, a decrease in oxy-Hb density is likely related to increase in the stress of the exercise since oxy-Hb density decreased immediately after the start of exercise and was decreased throughout decreasing speed. In the motor area, changing oxy-Hb density was related sway speed. We can control activation in motor area by changing sway speed.
Objective: The effects of consumption of Haskap (HS) tea produced from HS berries were examined in a single-intake a day and continuous-intake, on the alleviation of stress and the improvement of the subjective feeling of sleep. Method: Fourteen female students were allocated a HS-tea intake day and a water intake day so as to avoid order effect, in the evening to complete the single-intake trial; then they consumed HS-tea or water after dinner every day for three weeks, and underwent another trial, an identical manner to the single-intake trial. In four times trials, frontal and central EEGs and their mood states were measured. Using the EEG profiles, the power values and laterality coefficients for a brainwave were calculated. Moods were assessed using MCL-S.1. In the night of each trial, the sleep was evaluated by OSA subjective sleep rating scale. Results and Discussion: In both single-intake and continuous-intake of HS-tea, the power values for a wave significantly increased and laterality coefficients increased in the single-intake trial. In both trials, scores for the moods (relaxation and pleasantness) increased. In both trial nights, the scores of all five subordinate factors of the OSA were maintained at the same levels. In the single-intake trial of water, the power values for a waves and scores for relaxation and pleasantness increased; however, no changes were observed in the continuous-intake trial. The scores by the OSA clearly decreased on the night of continuous-intake of water compared to the night of a single-intake, and the scores were lower than those after the continuous intakes of HS-tea. Positive correlations were recognized among the power value of α wave of EEGs and scores for moods and the sleep by the OSA. Conclusion: A single-intake and continuous-intake of HS-tea favorably affect the brain and mood, alleviating stress and improving sleep.
Aim: Recently we reported reasonable effectiveness of biofeedback with balloon expulsion training alone for the treatment of functional defecation disorder due to pelvic floor inco-ordination. Since then, we added anal electromyography for the relaxation training of pelvic floor muscles. In this study, the "authentic" biofeedback with anal electromyography and balloon expulsion training was evaluated for the treatment of this disorder. Methods: Between August 2010 and May 2011, 19 patients with defecation disorder due to pelvic floor incoordination were treated with biofeedback using anal electromyography and balloon expulsion training, and formed the subjects of this study. The constipation symptom severity and the constipation-specific quality of life were evaluated with modified Constipation Scoring System (mCSS, no constipation:0 - worst:26) and Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAC-QOL, best:1.0 - worst:5.0), respectively. The anal electromyographic activity on straining was compared between at the first and at the last session of biofeedback. Results: The median age was 73 years old (range:62 - 85) and 13 were male. The median mCSS improved significantly (P=0.0005) from 12 (6 - 18) at the first visit to 10 (4 - 14) before biofeedback, and further improved significantly (P=0.004) to 5 (3 - 12) after biofeedback. The median PAC-QOL also improved significantly (P=0.009) from 3.3 (1.7 - 4.6) at the first visit to 2.7 (1.7 - 3.8) before biofeedback, and further improved significantly (P<0.0001) to 1.5 (1.0 - 2.7) after biofeedback. The anal electromyographic activity on straining significantly decreased from a median of 9μV at the first session to 4μV at the last session of biofeedback. Conclusions: By adding anal electromyography to balloon expulsion training for the treatment of patients with defecation disorder due to pelvic floor inco-ordination, the effectiveness of biofeedback was further reinforced with both of constipation symptom and constipation specific quality of life having significantly improved.
The biofeedback is to enable to control the responses of autonomic nerve system that are generally unconscious by making conscious through engineering approach. The study of biofeedback has been expanding from the study of a physiologist in U.S. who is interested in a yogi in India controlling his heart rate, and has been producing many successful results. But, its scope of application seems still limited. Meanwhile, the Mindfulness including MBSR (Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction) is largely drawing attention as stress reduction techniques although oriental yoga is persisting without essential change until recent years. In this article, we argue the relation between feedback through MBSR and biofeedback. In the behavioral psychology field, the behavior is divided into two categories: respondent reactions that are controllable by one's will and operant reactions that are uncontrollable by one's will. It is considered that the behavior can't be changed by one's will in respondent reactions because it is unconscious of the feedback, but biofeedback enables to become conscious of the feedback in respondent reactions. In the MBSR field, the oriental yoga methods including Zen and yoga etc. are adopted, and it enables self-control by monitoring not only body response and behavior but also thinking and emotion. This may be named "the resperant reactions" (HARUKI, 2011). It is considered that the recent ongoing survey of effects and mechanisms of MBSR will be contributing to explore the new side of the biofeedback knowledge in the same way with the research of yogi brought in the beginning and developing of the biofeedback.