Over 40 years in the history of Japan Society of Biofeedback Research, the environment surrounding Biofeedback has been changed in recent years. Due to the progress of science, a new technology that was never expected in the past has come to be utilized or, even if the technology itself hasn’t been changed, it begins to be used in a new way because of equipment’s downsizing. Especially for minimization of a microchip in PCs or others, sophisticated devices become surprisingly smaller and it is considered that the stream of wearable devices, in which people “wear” advanced technologies such as smartphones like iPhone, boosts the trend of minimization. In this symposium, I introduced our study in which virtual reality was utilized for care prevention or health enhancement, using the biosignal sensing technology such as a KinectTM sensor that is one of the advanced technologies. In the future, it is expected that this field will be expanding wider.
Virtual Reality (VR) is a technology, which acts on sense organs, such as visual and auditory organs, to enable the user to sense a computer-created environment virtually as if it was a real environment. A technology, which allows the user to perform addition, deletion, or modification of information presented through computer processing with respect to the objects in the real world, which may be sensed directly by human beings, is referred to as Augmented Reality (AR) or Mixed Reality (MR). The fields, which take advantage of VR/AR, include medical care, health and welfare, education, game, aerospace, automobile, tourism and business. In this report, the latest VR/AR technology is introduced focusing particularly on Head Mounted Display (HMD), which is about to reach the level of consumer equipment, to provide a clue to have a discussion about its feasibility of clinical applications.
Purpose : To spread the use of EMG biofeedback devices, we have developed a simple and low-cost electromyography (EMG) biofeedback device that can be used with the latest model of smartphones and tablet terminal (LC-EMG). The specific purpose of this study was to verify whether the performance of the LC-EMG fulfills the requirement of the use in EMG biofeedback therapy or not. For this purpose, here we compared the performance between the LC-EMG and the existing EMG device (Neuropack 8).
Methods : The muscle activity of the right extensor carpi ulnaris was recorded when the participants repeated the movement of wrist dorsiflexion and palmarflexion for 5 times in 10 seconds. The EMG signal was simultaneously recorded by the LC-EMG and Neuropack 8. We compared the waveform of these EMG signals and their root mean squared signals in appearance and by cross-correlation analysis.
Results : The EMG waveforms monitored by LC-EMG were similar to those of the Neuropack 8 and visually recognized on-line using smartphone. The cross correlation analysis also demonstrated that the delay and size of the waveforms of LC-EMG were almost equal to those of the Neuropack 8.
Conclusion : It is concluded that the LC-EMG device has a reliable performance to monitor the EMG signal as the existing EMG devices and is available for the use in EMG biofeedback therapy. We consider that the LC-EMG device has advantages in cost and handiness and will be widely used in various clinical situations.
A simple procedure for identifying the resonance frequency in heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVBF) was developed by focusing on the spectral peak frequency of the low-frequency (LF) component of HRV. Paced breathing at the LF peak frequency observed when resting with 15 cpm respiration (LF peak breathing condition) was compared with breathing at resonance frequency assessed by the conventional method (Resonance breathing condition). Results indicated that peak frequency in the LF peak breathing condition was significantly lower than that in the Resonance breathing condition (p<.01), whereas the amplitude in the LF peak breathing condition was higher than that in the Resonance breathing condition (p<.05). Moreover, psychological relaxation responses to paced breathing were identical to those during Autogenic Training reported in a previous study (Sakakibara et al., 2014). There was no significant difference in psychological relaxation score between the LF peak breathing and the Resonance breathing conditions. These results suggest that paced breathing procedure using LF peak frequency during resting state is useful for HRVBF.
The performances of skilled athletes are supported by not only motor skills but also cognitive skills. Especially in open-skill sports, athletes must perceive rapid environmental changes faster and more accurately. Therefore, such cognitive skills are considered components of the competitive level, and cognitive skills should be assessed to provide effective instruction when coaching athletes. Several psychological operations are thought to play a role in athletes’ cognitive process, of which one is mental rotation. We aimed to determine the underlying cognitive process of the skill in open-skill athletes by using rotation-related negativity (RRN), which is an event-related brain potential (ERP) elicited by mental image rotation. Skilled ice hockey players (athlete group) and non-athlete controls performed the mental rotation task by using letters from the alphabet with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recording. We calculated the percentage and mean reaction time of the correct responses, and the mean amplitude of the time window when RRN was considered to have appeared, separately for smaller- and larger-angle conditions of the stimulus rotation. The athlete group responded less accurately but faster than the control group, indicating that open-skill athletes prioritized speed over accuracy. No significant group difference in RRN amplitude was found between the athletes and controls, although RRN was observed in most participants when the rotation angle of the stimulus was larger. Significant positive correlations were found between the RRN amplitude at each electrode and the change in the percentage of correct responses, which were calculated by subtracting the value in the smaller-angle condition from that in the larger-angle condition. In addition, the player position seemed to have affected the distribution of the athlete group in the scatter plots, suggesting that the goal keepers tried to maintain their accuracy, whereas the other field players prioritized making faster responses. These findings suggest that the cognitive skill of open-skill athletes can be assessed by using the task performance and psychophysiological response to mental rotation.