Japanese Journal of Biofeedback Research
Online ISSN : 2432-3888
Print ISSN : 0386-1856
Volume 8
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • H. Ishikawa
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 1-
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • A. Umezawa, M. Kodama
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 2-3
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    When the respiratory biofeedback technique is used in rehabilitation, the simplified device is required for training of respiratory responses in patients with spinal cord injuries or cerebral palsy. Therefore such a device was developed to aid training at bedside or home. This device is constructed from the following four parts : (l) pick up, (2) pressure-voltage transducer, (3) amplifier, and (4) feedback display. Outputvoltage of this device showed a linear correlation with tidal volume ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 litre.
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  • Chiaki NISHIMURA, Jin-ichi NAGUMO
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 4-6
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Human skin potential level (SPL) reflects his level of vigilance. When he is awake he shows about -50 mV of SPL. His SPL increases toward zero level as he becomes drowsy. We applied the phenomenon to doze suppression with the help of biofeedback technique. However, many technical problems are involved in the practical use of the biofeedback system : problems of (1) electrodes, (2) amplifiers, (3) differences between individuals, (4) feedback method, (5) system reliability, etc. In this paper discussions are focused on the above items (1) and (3). In the discussion on electrodes a practical site for active electrode and a convenient abrading method for reference electrode are proposed. Furthermore, in order to reduce differences in SPL between individuals the normalized threshold level is proposed, the effectiveness of which was tested through a series of experiments.
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  • Mieko OHSUGA
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 7-9
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We schemed out a system of EEG auditory feedback for relaxation or causing sleep. This system is designed to make feedback information easier and feedback sound less unpleasant for the subject to hear. Feedback signal is a train of three different sounds, which continue for one second together and would be in harmony if sounded simultaneously. The ratio of the length of the sounds represents that of the power of EEG activities in each band, θ, α, and β. Consequently, the subject will be aware of the change in the proportion of three EEG compornents by that in the rhythm of feedback sounds. It was already proved that the system is free from any counter-effect which was resulted by other methods.
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  • Masashi KAWASUMI, Ichiro FUKUMOTO, Masao SAITO
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 10-13
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It seems to be suggested that the level of pain can be controled by using the method, which is the biofeedback training on enhancement of alpha activity (alpha-biofeedback training). We investigated the effect of alpha-biofeedback training on pain, using the improved thermal dolorimeter, we measured quantitatively the thresholds of pain for the individuals who were trained to increase the amount of alpha activity by using the alpha-biofeedback system, and who were n6t trained. We obtained the following findings in the experimental result. 1) In the subjects who were trained to increase the amount 4of alpha activity, the alpha-percentage of the total training time were increased approximately 30 (%) in 15 days, and their thresholds of pain were increased. 2) In the subjects, however, who were not trained, their thresholds of pain were not increased.
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  • Katsuyuki SHIRAKURA, Akiteru HOSHI, Tomie IGA, Mihoko TAKECHI
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 14-17
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For the purpose of examining changes in other physiological indices in the biofeedback training (BT) session for alpha activities, we conducted a polygraph study and reported changes in the R-R interval times on ECG in the previous article (Vol. 7). In the present experiment, we recorded polygrams during BT for alpha activities in eight healthy subject (21-37 years of age). The conditions, procedure, etc. of the experiment were almost the same as those shown in Vol. 7. In the present expriment, however, changes in the blood flow volume was measured with a Doppler type of blood flow meter installed on the radial artery. The following is the summary of results of BT under the conditions set by us in the present experiment and results reported previously. 1) A slowing shift at 0.5-l.0 Hz of the component corresponding to the alpha band wave on the EEG power spectrum was often observed in the training session and post-BT session in cases in which enhancement and suppression of alpha activities were achieved satisfactorily, whether the eyes were closed or opened. In cases which showed a fast shift of alpha activities partially, negative BT was possible but enhancement of alpha activities was not achieved. 2) As to the R-R interval time, prolongation of the R-R interval time was observed in all cases except the EO-BT session of Mr. H. K (male) where alpha activities could be suppressed as directed regardless of whether there is the slowing shift of alpha activities in the BT session with the eyes opened and closed. Furthermore, it was made clear that the prolongation was rather prominent in the post-BT session. The blood flow volume recorded simultaneously showed changes almost parallel to the changes in the R-R interval time. It would be reasonable to think that these are changes in the physiological function secondary to BT for alpha activities.
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  • Michio ONO, Hisashi HIRAI
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 18-19
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of verbal feedback about tension magnitude on subjective estimates was examined in magnitude estimation of voluntary muscle tension. Fourteen subjects were assigned to either experimental group with verbal feedback or controll group without verbal feedback. Abductive tension of index finger was converted into integrated electromyogram, and displaed to the subject himself in the form of analogue meter feedback. Subjects estimated each of the comparative tensions, which ranged over a O.5 log unit (O.89-2.81 mV) in comparison with the standard tension (1.58 mV) which corresponds to the magnitude "10". The experiment consisted of six sessions. Within each session, six kinds of comparative tensions were presented twice respectively. While the experimental group was provided with verbal feedback from the second to the fifth session, the control group was not given it throughout the sessions. Power exponents indicated neither training effect based on repetitive estimations nor effect of verbal feedback. Coefficients of determination showed a significant difference between the first and the sixth session on both group, suggesting the presence of training effect, but they did not show a difference between the two groups, which was indicative of deficiency in the effect of verbal feedback. This unsatisfactory result of coefficients of determination was attributed to the possibility that the verbal feedback was an indirect one, and that there was an absence of regulative function in the verbal feedback caused by an abundance in kinds of stimuli.
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  • Toshio MATSUNO, Taisaku KATSURA, Ichiroh KAMOSHITA, Nobue NAKAMURA, Ma ...
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 20-22
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Biofeedback therapy using the respiratory impedance meter is expected to be effective for bronchial asthma. This report was made to study the mutual relation between the number of biofeedback training and its frequency. We experienced 3 cases of 30 year-old man, 66 year-old man, aed 38 year-old man. Each patient underwent 4 times per week, twice a week, and once every 2 weeks. The former 2 patients got a remarkabl improvement to gain the normal respiratory impedance by 80 times of biofeedback training, and the frequency of asthmatic attach decreased. However, very little improvement was shown to the last patient in spite of more than 80 times of training. This study shows at least twice a week of training and more than 80 times of training is necessary to get the therpaentic effect for broncnial asthma.
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  • Shin Ichihara
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 23-25
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It has been reported that during periods of emotional excitment Parkinsonian tremor may increase and can, at times, be reduced by conscious effort. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the possibility of the selfcontrol on the reduction of hand tremor in Parkinsonisms. The upper trapezius EMG feedback was used to reduce emotionally induced tremor (first step), and the amplitude of hand tremor feedback was used to inhibit tremor-at-rest (second step). At the first step, verbal stimulus was used, and at the second step, auditory (1000Hz, pure tone) stimulus was used as feedback signals. The patient underwent two or three training sessions per week for a period of 5 weeks. With this "biofeedback" training in relaxation, the patient not only learned to decrease upper trapezius EMG activities but produce subsequent reduction in the hand tremors. Results indicate that biofeedback training is the useful method to reduce Parkinsonian tremor.
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  • Yoshio INAMORI
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 26-28
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this experiment was to test whether feedback display timing is necessary to synchronize with R-wave of the cardiac cycle and to further examine the effects of feedback delay during voluntary heart rate control. Analogue heart rate feedback of each beat and target zone were presented on a TV display. The target zone, a triangular-shaped wave, was ±20 msec wide. Its zero crossing point was equal to the running baseline heart rate of each subject and its peak points were ±75 msec from the baceline. Fourteen subjects received thirty 100-beat trials. All subjects were required to put their heart rate into the target zone as much as possible under five different conditions, immediate, R-desynchronized (variable delay less than one-beat), one-beat delay, three-beat delay and no feedback conditions. Results indicated that the task performances for both the R-desynchronized and one-beat delay feedback conditions were lower than that of immediate feedback condition but higher than the three-beat delay feedback condition. The performance for no feedback condition was the lowest. The findings of this experiment show that very short delay of the feedback can disturb the performance of voluntary heart rate control. But further research is necessary to determine whether the disturbed performance for the R-desynchronized condition is due to R-desyncronized effect itself or delay feedback effect of less than one-beat.
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  • Hiromi TOHYAMA, Yo MIYATA
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 29-31
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of using respiration as a strategy on voluntary control of the heart rate (HR) and also to examine the feedback effect under such a condition. 40 normal undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups : 1) Respiration-Feedback (R-F) group 2) Respiration-No Feedback (R-NF) group 3) No Respiration-Feedback (NR-F) group 4) No Respiration-No Feedback (NR-NF) group While R-F and R-NF groups were allowed to use the respiration to control the HR, NR-F and NR-NF groups were instructed not to change the respiration. After 5-minute adaptation period, each subject was given two training sessions for increasing and decreasing the HR and one final test session. During training sessions, feedback groups were provided with the HR feedback (meter flactuation and digital presentation). In the test session, all groups tried to control the HR without any feedback. All groups showed increasing and decreasing the HR in training and test sessions, and there was a main group effect in test session. For increasing the HR, the changes were greater in respiration groups than no respiration groups. However, there were only small changes (within 4 bpm) in all groups for decreasing the HR. The present results indicated that : 1) The Respiration facilitated the HR increase. 2) But it didn't give such an efiect on the HR decrease. 3) The HR increase was correlated with the increase of respiration rate. 4) There was no significant difference between feedback groups and no feedback groups. 5) It was suggested that the respiration amplitude effected the HR change. 6) Individual differences in respiration groups must be examined more precisely.
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  • Jiro FUJIMOTO, Tetsuomi IBI, Tetsuro MINO, Yo MIYATA
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 32-34
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability to control the pulse transit time (PTT) in a biofeedback situation. Ten subjects (Experimental group) were instructed either to increase or decrease their PTT, while watching a CRT display which was used as a biofeedback in the present experiment. Another ten subjects (Control group) were asked just to watch the CRT display. They received two sessions on two consecutive days. Results indicated that the feedback was effective in controlling of the PTT. In addition, the heart rate changed simultaneously with the PTT. However, no significant relationship between the PTT and the blood pressure was found.
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  • Shoichi WATANABE, Minoru AKAGI, Yukinobu IKEDA
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 35-37
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the present study, we attempted to examine the relationship between each of the two factors related to individual differences and the ability to control systolic blood pressure. The first factor is richness of imagery. The second is intensity of autonomic self perception. Sophian Scale of Imagery (SSI) of 11 items, each of which inquiries about the richness of imagery in daily life and Sophian Scale of Internal Perception (SSP) 0L 15 items, each of which deals with the intensity of autonomic self perception in daily life were administered to 17 undergraduate students. The experiment cnsisted of three segments : (1) an initial pre-experiment baseline median blood pressure determination, (2) 5 rest trials, (3) 15 training trials (either increase or decrease). Each subject was studied in two sessions, one day apart, the first session an increase blood pressure condition, the second a decrease condition, or vice versa. The constant-cuff pressure method of measuring systolic blood pressure was used (Tursky et al. 1972). Each trial onsisted of exactly 30 heartbeats. In training trial, the subjects were given tone feedback when the each heartbeat was accompanied by Korotkoff sound. During any one trial, the pressure applied tothe cuff was held constant. If more than 75% of thehear tbeat-Korotkoff sound contingencies were successful on the trial, the applied pressure was increased by 2-3mmHg on the next trial. In the case of success on fewer than 25%, the task was made easier by 2-3 mmHg. An adjustment was not made at 75% to 25%. The results for systolic blood pressure control are shown in Fig. 2. An analysis of variance of direction (Up vs Down) and trials were not significant. A t-test between Up and Down were significant in 12,14 and 15 trial (p<.05). Table 1 shows the relationship between the scores of each scale and the ability to control systolic blood pressure. This suggests a tendency for the increase and decrease blood pressure conditions to have differential effects.
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  • Tatsuo Sawazaki, Kotaro Harano
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 38-40
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present authors and colleagues designed and made out the new biofeedback (BF) instrument which use the SCL (skin conductance level) as index, and found that the instrument might serve as an appro-
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  • Akio UMEZAWA
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 41-43
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recently there have been many published studies concerning the clinical application of biofeedback in rehabilitation. A review of these studies shows that EMG biofeedback is most frequently used in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Few effort has been made to examine the efficiencies of other kinds of feedback techniques including EEG, respiration, position sensing, and autonomic responses. In this report some problems discussed concerning respiratory biofeedback treatment of the physically handicapped patients. The types of patients are classified as follows : 1. Cerebral Palsy Respiratory biofeedback is used to improve speech function and to reduce muscle hypertention. 2. Spinal Cord Injuries Respiratory biofeedback is used to ameliorate postual hypotention and to improve vital capacity during breath exercises in quadriplegic persons. 3. Cerebellar Ataxia and Parkinson's Disease Hand tremors of these patients show the respiratory fluctuation, therefore respiratory biofeedback technique could be useful to reduce them.
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  • Seiichi TAJIMA
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 44-46
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate feedback techniqe for motor action learning. For this purpsse, CP subjects were trained to learn motor action by three types of feedback technique as follows. (1) EMG feedback for tension maintenance : CP subjects (N=12) were able to learn holding EMG activity more accurately by EMG feedback. (2) EMG feedback for inhibition of antagonist : CP subject could learn to inhibit EMG activity from flexor during wrist extension. As a result wrist extension became more smoothly. But active range of motion showed no change. (3) Electrogoniometer feedback for extension of active range of motion : A11 three CP subjects could extend their active range of motion in wrist extension. But their extensors and flexors showed higher EMG activity accompanied with avove change. These result were discussed from the view of information processing, and differential feedback was pro posed.
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  • Naoichi Chino
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 47-48
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    By recent advances in medical electronics, one can easily detect the biofeedback signals using simplified and pocketable machines. Particularly, in the field of rehabilitation medicine EMG feedback therapy has gained its popularity in treating hemiplegic patients caused by cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). Currently EMG feedback therapy is utilized in the following purposes, (1) Muscle reeducation......... to facilitate the paretic muscles. (2) Inhibition......... to suppress the hyperactive muscles. (3) Muscle strengthening......to increase the power of weak muscles. (4) Co-ordination......... to train the delicate movement. Kimura et al at Keio University Hospital reported that 52 out of 54 patients had shown functional improvement to various extent. At the present time our main interest is on treating the shoulder subluxation in the early phase of CVA before the irreversible peripheral nervelesion develops. In training the deeply lying muscles such as ext. dig. indicis, one has to implant the wire electrodes instead of the surface electrodes which in most cases applicable. Comparing to the conventional therapeutic maneuver there have been several controversial comments regarding the efficacy of EMG feedback therapy, one has to await further investigation.
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  • Y. Ohno
    Type: Article
    1981 Volume 8 Pages 49-50
    Published: June 30, 1981
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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