Japanese Journal of Biofeedback Research
Online ISSN : 2432-3888
Print ISSN : 0386-1856
Volume 9
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Kazumasa Shiga, Yoichi Matsuoka, Yuji Sasaki
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 1-4
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of frontal alpha enhancement in relaxation and meditation training. Alpha training at the frontal site is not the same physiologically or psychologically as the much studied training at the occipital site. Differences include 1) higher artifact, such as EMG activity of forehead muscles or EOG by eye movement, 2) very low amplitude of alpha waves unless the subject is in an extremely calm state of mind. For these reasons, the instrumentation and training methodology were modified from conventional systems. It was found that the participants were able to listen to music through the feedback systems and alpha feedback was accomplished by amplitude modulated music that is presented at the occurrence or disappearance of alpha. Twenty-six subjects were selected from volunteers who never had any experience of relaxation training. The results showed that the frontal EEG alpha was enhanced through this feedback training and can be voluntary controled. Aids such as BGM or Autogenic Training were very helpfull to accelerate the improvement of frontal alpha enphancement trainig.
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  • Yoichi MATSUOKA, Kazumasa SHIGA, Yugi SASAKI
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 5-9
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, we investigate the changes of frontal EEG alpha activity and subjective states in biofeedback trainig and autogenic training. In addition, we investigated the effects of autogenic feedback training that was combined feedback technique with autogenic training. The results are as follows ; 1) The average frotal EEG alpha appearance time increased after training both biofeedback training group and autogenic training group. But, it was only biofeedback training group that the frontal EEG alpha activity significantly increased after trainig. 2) The subjective states shifted to more positive direction after training both groups. 3) It was L0und by the power spectrum analysis of frontal EEG that subjects were able to increase evidently their frontal EEG alpha amplitude after autogenic feedback training. Finally, we concluded that it was very effective to feedback the effects of autogenic training, or to use autogenic training for the strategy of biofeedback training.
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  • Toshio Matsuno, Taisaku Katsura, Yasumi Kayama, Naoki Hayashi, Shigeo ...
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 10-15
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have already showed the effective result of biofeedback therapy for bronchial asthma in the previous reports past 3 times. We use the respiratory resistance meter to mesure the respiratory resistance and asses the effect of biofeedback therapy. This report was made to show the actual therapeutic procedure through a cace of bronchial asthma who has 8 years of past history. Biofeedback training was applied to a 38 year old man who had undergone unsuccesfull hypo-sensitization therapy with house dust. Unstable pattern of respiratory resistance improved to stable pattern, and sensitivity of bronchus mesured by inhalation of acetylcholine has reduced from 12500 γ/ml to 1536 γ/ml after 138 times of biofeedback training. As the respiratory resistance getting better, the clinical symptoms gradually improved. It might be very significant to make a further investigation to proceed the biofeedback therapy for bronchial asthma.
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  • Jiro Fujimoto, Hikaru Araki, Kunio Nihama, Yo Miyata
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 16-19
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the ability to control the heart rate (HR) in neurotic patients and non-neurotic subjects. Subjects were nine neurotic patients and 10 non-neurotic subjects. They received two feedback training sessions for increasing and decreasing the HR with an interval of one week. The results indicated that the non-neurotic subjects were able to control their HR without feedback, but the feedback training disturbed the HR control in the neurotic patients. The findings of this study suggest that the neurotic patients may have learned a wrong recognition of their cardiovascular activity.
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  • Yosho INAMORI
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 20-23
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to test whether it is necessary to synchronize feedback display timing with R-wave of the cardiac cycle during voluntary heart rate control. A previous study (Inamori, 1980) showed that tracking accuracy of heart rate of the R-desynchronized feedback condition was lower than that of immediate feedback condition. But it was impossible to determine whether the disturbing effect was due to R-desychronized effect or the 1/2-beat variable delay feedback effect. To investigate this problem, a 1/2-beat constant delay condition was added in this experiment. Analogue heart rate feedback of each beat and target zone were presented on a TV display. Sixteen subjects received thirty-two 100-beat trials. A11 subjects were required to put their heart rate into the target zone under four different conditions; immediate, 1/2-beat constant delay, 1/2-beat variable delay, and 1-beat delay feedback conditions. Differences between the feedback conditions were found in the tracking performance and the heart rate variabilities which were evaluated by frequency analysis of successive heart rates. The tracking accuracies were disturbed as a function of length of feedback delay, and these effects corresponded with the strength of low frequency power of heat rate variabilities. However, in both measures, the results of 1/2-beat constant delay condition were identical with those of 1/2-beat variable delay condition, suggesting that it is not necessary to, synchronize the feedback display timing with R-wave.
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  • Shoichi WATANABE, Hideshi TANAKA, Michio ONO, Nelida TANAKA, Hisashi H ...
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 24-27
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Time Difference between Two Wave (TDTW) in the pulse waveform has been measured by the method developed by Tanaka and Kanai (also in this volume), and the present report discusses its validity as a target response for the modification of blood pressure through biofeedback, as well as problems concerned with its application. Fourteen normotensive female undergraduate students were used as subjects and were required to participate two days for this experiment. In order to see the correlation of TDTW and diastolic blood pressure taken by sphygmomanometer, measures were obtained for periods of rest (15min.), mental arithmetic and cold pressor test during the first day. Training for the voluntary control of TDTW was done on the second day. Subjects were divided into two groups ; those in the biofeedback were given usual feedback which varied accordingly to the changes in TDTW whereas those in the instruction group were given none. After 10 minutes of rest, subjects of both groups had alternately 5 up and 5 down trials, each of 3 min. duration, the order of which was counterbalanced. The results indicate the following : TDTW and diastolic blood pressure as measured by sphygmomanometer under rest, mental arithmetic and cold pressor conditions show a high inverse correlation. However individual differences in the regression coefficient of TDTW and diastolic blood pressure are large. Thus a previous conversion of TDTW into blood pressure values is required before its application to biofeedback.
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  • H. TANAKA, K. Sakamoto, H. Kanai
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 28-31
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, a new indirect blood pressure measurement method for Biofeedback control of blood pressure is discussed. For the purpose of Biofeedback control of blood pressure, it is necessary to continuously measure the change of blood pressure through a experiment. Suitable method for this purpose have never been developed. Experimental results on blood pulse velocity reported by many researchers show that the pulse wave velocity is greatly affected by diastolic blood pressure. Therefore, pulse wave velocity is used for the estimation of blood pressure. It is also wellknown that the time difference between two waves in the pulse waveforms depend on the pulse wave velocities. Therefore, we can get the informations about blood pressure from the interval between these two waves. To estimate the change of blood pressure from the change of interval, it is necessary to know the relation between the blood pressure and the interval for each patient. The pressure wave is transcutaniously detected at the dorsal artery of foot. For the measurement of this interval, autocorrelation function of measurement pressure wave 1s calculated in real time by a micro computer. Before experiment of biofeedback, this interval is calibrated by usual cuff method at various blood pressure. From these results, we can see that the change of the interval is inversely proportional to the change of blood pressure. Therefore, the blood pressure can be estimated from the interval within the measurement accuracy of 2 or 3 mmHg.
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  • Minoru Akagi, Masahiko Ito
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 32-35
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Negative practice is well-known as the therapy for tic syndrome. It is, however, difficult to perform in childhood tic syndrome. EMG biofeedback training for this syndrome has already tried by some researchers elsewhere. We tried EMG biofeedback for eight patients of childhood tic syndrome. The numbers of sessions are from three times to ten and in all of them except one their symptoms became much better. Polygraphic record at each session showed the linear change of EMG and binary informations of up and down to the criteria which was settled in advance. For the first time all of the patients could not manage to reduce EMG activities even though getting biofeedback informations of sound and light. Then at the second session and so on they became able to control EMG activities through biofeedback informations and contingently diminished it. We also tried therapeutically to treat the parents' attitude toword their children. That is, they were coercive, controlling, crushing etc. as ever admitted clinically. We tentatively conclude that EMG biofeedback for childhood tic syndrome is the one of the useful therapeutic methods with some behaviorally oriented approaches.
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  • Eitoku Toyoshima, Nobuhiko Sunohara, Yukio Mano, Shinji Miyazaki
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 36-42
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In normal subjects of standing position, the application of the vibration to M. triceps surae causes the backward falling reaction. This phenemenum is known as the vibration induced falling (VIF) reaction. We investigated this VIF reaction of the patients with various neuromuscular disorders, and inspected the mechanism of the postural disturbances in these patients. 5 patients with Parkinson disease, 5 with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD), 1 with familiar spastic paraplegia (FSP), 1 with left-side frontal pseudoataxia (FPA) and 5 normal examinees as the control were examined. Vibration of 100 Hz of 4kgw /24 cm^2 was applied for about 10 sec to M. triceps surae during standing with closed eyes. Simaltaneously electromyograms from M. triceps surae and M. tibialis anterior of both legs, and foot-forcesat the metatarsal region and the heel of both soles were recorded. Each neuromuscular disorders showed the different and characteristic VIF reaction patterns. The patients with Parkinson disease revealed the hyporeaction in amplitude as compared with the normal subjects, who had a large backward and short subsequent longitudinal body-sways during and after the application of the vibration and the latency to the onset of the reaction of about 500 mS. In SCD the hyper-reaction in amplitude was observed. The amplitude of the body-sways of the patient with FSP was within normal range, but the latency was shorter than the normal. In FPA, the VIF reaction of the non-affected side was as like as in the patients with SCD, but that of the affected side was not seen. It was suggested by Ekuland in 1972 that the VIF reaction was resulted from the illusion of the normal postural regulation system, then it seems that frontal lobe, cerebellum, pyramidal and extrapyramidal tracts all play the important role but with somewhat different manner in the postural regulation system. According to these results, the posibility of the biofeedback therapy of the motor abnormalities such as involuntary movements (tremor, chorea, etc.) and frozen or ataxic gait observed in the patients with neuromuscular disorders was briefly discussed.
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  • Masaharu Yajima, Shin Ichihara, Akio Umezawa
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 43-47
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A microcomputer-based biofeedback traning system was described. The main components of this system were microcomputer, color cathode ray tube (CRT), analog-digital converter, mini-floppy disk drive, and printer. Various physiological responses could be converted to digital data through analog-digital converter circuit, then processed by microprocessor. This system had a firmware which easily controlled high-resolution color graphic display, so that visual feedback stimuli could be presented in either geometric or numeric form on the CRT. In addition, other information such as training criteria, past performance level etc., could be displayed on the CRT simultaneously. Mini-floppy disk was used for a storage of large quantity of data, and printer for data output. For each application of this system, it was necessary to modify only software or program without any alteration of hardware. It increased the flexibility in controlling biofeedback stimuli. The program was written in both machine language and BASIC language including high-resolution color graphic subroutines. These graphic subroutines could control 280H×192V colored dots one by one. It was possible to configure almost any stimulus form on the CRT. An outline of software logic was given with reference to a practical application to EMG biofeedback training. Critical advantages of this system for biofeedback were discussed.
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  • Chiaki NISHIMURA, Akio KOSAKA, Kazuko TSUNEMITSU, Shuji YOSHIZAWA, Jin ...
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 48-52
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Human skin potential level (SPL) recorded from the palar surface reflects his level of alertness. When he is awake he shows about-50 mV of SPL. His SPL increases toward zero level as he becomes drowsy. We tested the possibility to apply the phenomenon to sleep control with the help of biofeedback technique. A small radio telemetry device for practical use was made, and by using it changes in SPL during various bodily motion were measured. The result showed a strong correspondence between mental activation and high negative SPL. Deviation of SPL toward less negative level was occasionally observed when subjects were walking and running. Therefore, bodily movement did not necessarily cause to keep SPL in deep negative level. The telemetry system was also used to measure SPL during driving a car. While driving drivers normally showed deep negative level of SPL. Their SPL, however, positively deviated by more than 10 mV when they felt drowsy or when they showed an abnormal way of driving which seemed to be caused by lowered vigilance. When drivers were asked to take a rest after stopping the car, their SPL lost negativity. These results imply that SPL is useful in detecting dozes or low alertness. The technique to detect drowsiness will be applicable to doze alarm system for drivers, pilots, etc. It will also be usefull in biofeedback for sleep promotion.
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  • Mieko Ohsuga, Hiromi Tohyama, Kazuo Nakazawa, Futomi Shimono
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 53-57
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For the clinical use 0L the biofeedback technique, the doctor should make a careful consideration in formulating the training methodology according to the patient's symptoms, his personality, etc. We have developed a biofeedback system which aids the doctor in deciding his methodology and provides an instrumentation for real time feedback training and future analysis. This system has four characteristics as follows ; 1. The doctor can decide the training method by selecting the variables and parameters that are presented on the display without any troublesome programming. The available variables and parameters pertain to the physiological indices, the method of data processing, the feedback modalities, and the feedback modes. 2. The doctor can also decide the training sequence ; including rest, baseline, and feedback training periods. 3. The training can be excuted automatically according to the decided sequence. 4. The patient's data in training sessions are recorded on the floppy disk. After the training, the doctor can make further analysis for the data and can get the output on the display or printer.
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  • Akihiro Yagi
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 58-60
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Progress of sciences on the human mind e. g. psychology and neurosciences and advance of micro electronics have produced new types of man-machine system designated as psycho-electronics. Examples and problems on psycho-electronics were presented and discussed in this paper. The first is the electronic measurement of psychological phenomena and expression of intention aided with electronic devices. Some psychological phenomena, e. g. arousal level, sensation, attention and emotion can be measured by EEG, EOG and autonomic responses detected with the surface and the implanted electrodes. A handicapped person can express his intention and control his environment or some machines with the electronic aids. The second is the functional stimulation to the mind with electronics. A blind person can read letters and walk freely with the visual electronic prosthesis. A deaf person can get auditory information with the sensory substitution systems. The electrical stimulation into the brain can produce special feelings and change the level of arousal, needs and emotion. The third is the control of the mind with the electronic system, e. g. biofeedback and the linkage between the brain and the computer. The technique of biofeedback has already applied in many areas, e. g. education, industry and sports other than in the clinical medicine. The final stage of psycho-electronics will be the man-computer linkage. This system has possibilities to bring dramatic effects in the medical treatment for neurological or psychological desease and advance personal capacity. Widespread discussions on assesments from technology, psychology, physiology and ethics are required for application of psycho-electronics to man.
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  • Mitsuo Iida
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 61-64
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    System theory is utilized in many kinds of practical field, not only business and engineering, but also medical field. This phenomenon does not doubt if you consider the definition or criteria of the theory. For getting a fruitful result in a finite field, trial and error have to be repeated without missing of already determined purpose and direction. In this respect, the following matter as emergency service, laboratory system and medical practice will be well suitable problems. On the other hand, neurological manifestation, in general, has a peculier feature that it shows a little modification by psychic function, especially in my-asthenic or posttraumatic patients. So, examining the neurologic patients, neurologist has to keep his mind in this fashion of combination of psychic function with neurologic one. Accordingly, using a thinking process like a flow-chart, an interaction or combination of both function and weighting within thoes must be calculated and considered along the patient's course, which is called an analysis by system theory. For this purpose small computer is sometimes necessary, whose result is able to direct the improvement and happiness to the patient and to be formulated to some pattern in general practice.
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  • Yoichi OKABE
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 9 Pages 65-68
    Published: June 30, 1982
    Released: May 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A model of formation of mind is proposed giving an example of small size neuron networks. Neural system changes its structure along with the growth of a creature. However, there are two ways of thinking that neuron networks are decided a priori by the heredity or a posteriori by the interaction with the outer world. First it is discussed that the rough structure of neuron networks may be given a priori but the fine structure, such as synaptic conductance, must be decided a posteriori. Secondly the final goal of neuron networks is discussed, and it is supposed that a neural system changes its structure aiming appropriate input stimuli; that is, it does not want too strong stimuli nor too weak stimuli. This supposition is confirmed by the study of the reflex arc for avoidance of dangers, along with the discussions of the homeostasis of creatures and the teaching principles. The result is represented by a performance index of the total neural system. Finally it is discussed how the synaptic conductances in the neural system are determined to appropriate values. It is shown that synapses would find appropriate conductances by jittering their conductances and checking the response of the performance index. The proposed model is deduced by the discussion of small size networks, however we hope that a similar model can be adapted to bigger networks, too.
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