The purpose of this study is to develop the Correctional Stimulant Relapse Risk Scale (C-SRRS) in Japanese prison for measuring relapse risk of drug abuse, meanwhile to examine reliability and validity of the scale. In Study I, the data were collected from 712 male prisoners imprisoned in Japan due to drug related offenses between March and June, 2008. Exploratory factor analysis revealed six factors of the C-SRRS (impulsive and urgent for drug use (F1), emotional and motivational problems (F2), positive expectancy for drug use (F3), lack of control over drug and clime (F4), lack of recognition as drug abuser (F5) and “lack of negative expectancy for drug use (F6)”). Reliability analysis indicated that Chronbach's α of C-SRRS were sufficiently high (α were 0.931 (F1), 0.850 (F2), 0.806 (F3), 0.805 (F4), 0.559 (F5), 0.683 (F6)). In StudyII, the data were collected from 297 male prisoners imprisoned in Japan due to drug related offenses between January and February, 2009. Validity of C-SRRS was confirmed by using questionnaire based on the Japanese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to assess drug dependency, and relating relapse risk for drug abuse as external criteria.
Based on Cantor & Land (1985)'s theory (C-L theory) and Greenberg (2001) and Yuma (2009)'s statistical model (G-Y model), this study examined the effects of the motivational-effect (measured by the first difference of unemployment rates (UR)) and the opportunity-effect (measured by original series of UR) on original series of Japanese juveniles' homicide rates (HR), using one-year-interval time-series data (1974–2006). Cointegration regressions revealed long-run equilibrium relationships between original series of HR and original series of UR both in a 16–17 years old group and in a 18–19 years old group. UR had significant and increasing effects on HR in the long-term. Error correction models also showed that in the short-term, effects of UR were significant and positive on HR in both groups. Derived from these results, G-Y models found that opportunity-effects of UR on original series of HR were significant and positive in the groups, which was opposite to C-L theory. The models also found that a motivational-effect of UR on original series of HR was significant only in the 18–19 years old group as predicted. The results were discussed in regard to (a) the differences between situations in which Japanese juveniles' homicide occurred and those in the United States, and (b) the time-lag of the motivational-effect.
The objective of this study was to explore changes of juveniles' perceived attitudes and behaviors during the detention of the Juvenile Classification Home. Method: 248 juveniles detained in S Juvenile Classification Home in 2008 (219 boys, 29 girls: Average age of 16.7, SD=1.6) were asked to answer the questionnaire at 2 points of time, just after admission and before the discharge. The results showed that the subjects were likely to perceive positive change in their own behaviors and attitudes through the detention. Also, it was found that several factors unique to Juvenile Classification Home significantly influenced the subjects' positive attitudinal changes.