Objectives : We analyzed the mortality and morbidity of congenital heart surgery in Japan by using Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database (JCVSD). Methods : The congenital heart surgery performed between January 2017 to December 2018 were obtained from JCVSD. From the data obtained, the most frequent twenty procedures were selected, and the mortalities and major morbidities were analyzed. In addition, all the procedures were classified into STAT Mortality Categories and mortalities in each category were also analyzed. Results : The mortality of ASD repair and VSD repair were 0% and 0.2% respectively. The mortality of TOF repair, complete AVSD repair, Rastelli operation, CoA complex repair, bidirectional Glenn, TCPC were 2-3%. The mortality of systemic to pulmonary shunt was 4.9%, and the mortality of TAPVC repair and Norwood procedure were 11.1% and 15.7% respectively and not different from the results of 2015-2016. The mortalities according to the STAT categories 1-5 were 0.3%, 2.7%, 2.9%, 5.9% and 15.5% respectively and comparable to those of STS database (2013-2016). Conclusion : The analysis of the JCVSD-congenital data revealed the mortality rate of major surgical procedures for congenital heart disease performed in Japan in 2017-2018, the frequency of complications, and the mortality rate by STAT Mortality Categories. We believe that these statistics will play an important role as a basis for trends in Japan and for comparison of results with other countries.
Data on isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed in 2017 and 2018, and registered in the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database were reviewed for preoperative characteristics, postoperative outcomes, and choice of graft material for the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Isolated CABG was performed off-pump in 54.6% (n＝14,684) of all CABG cases (n＝26,913), and graft material for the LAD was left internal thoracic artery in 76.4% and right internal thoracic artery in 19.0%. Operative mortality was 1.5% in elective cases (On-pump CABG : ONCAB 1.9%, off-pump CABG : OPCAB 1.2%, p＜0.001), 7.4% in emergency cases (ONCAB 10.2%, OPCAB 4.3%, p＜0.001), and 2.5% overall. Postoperative morbidity was low in almost all aspects in OPCAB, and average JapanSCORE II is elevating every year. Overall short-term operative results for isolated CABG is stable, and operative candidates are shifting to higher-risk patients.
Objectives : We sought to present data relative to valvular heart surgeries from the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database in 2017 and 2018 to show current status and trend in Japan. Methods : We extracted data relative to cardiac valve surgeries performed in 2017 and 2018 from the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database. We obtained total number of aortic valve replacement procedures and showed trend for these 6 years from 2013 to 2018. The operative mortality rates were shown for representative valve procedures stratified by age group with the aim of showing a bench mark of Japan. Data regarding minimally invasive procedures and transcatheter aortic valve implantation which the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database can provide were also presented. Results : Despite dramatic increase of number of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in 2017 and 2018 compared to in 2015 and 2016, surgical aortic valve replacement also increased from 26,054 to 28,202. Regarding the operative mortality of first time valve procedures, it was 1.8% in isolated aortic valve replacement, 0.9% in isolated mitral valve repair, 8.2% in mitral valve replacement with biological prostheses, and 4.6% with mechanical prostheses. For first time valve procedures with concomitant coronary artery bypass, the operative mortality was 5.2% in aortic valve replacement, 4.9% in mitral valve repair. Regarding prosthetic valve selection, 72.6% of patients had biological prosthesis for aortic valve replacement procedures in their 60's, showing trend of increasing percentages of biological valve choice. Regarding minimally invasive procedure, 31.8% of first time isolated mitral valve plasty were performed via right thoracotomy. Though patients who underwent surgery via right thoracotomy had better clinical outcomes, it was also apparent that the patients who underwent surgery via right thoracotomy had lower operative risk profile. Aortic clamp time and cardiopulmonary bypass time were longer in the right thoracotomy patients. 6.3% of the patients who had isolated aortic valve replacement underwent surgery via right thoracotomy. The right thoracotomy aortic valve replacement patients had better clinical outcomes and had more percentage of lower risk profile. The overall mortality of transcatheter aortic valve implantation and surgical aortic valve replacement were 1.5% and 1.8%, respectively. Conclusion : We reported data related to heart valve surgery in 2017 and 2018 from the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database.
Purpose : The current status of treatment for thoracic/thoracoabdominal aortic diseases in Japan was analyzed. Methods : Using the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database (JCVSD), the number of cases, operative mortality and major morbidities (stroke, renal failure, pneumonia, paraplegia) of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic surgery in 2017 and 2018 were analyzed by surgical site (root-ascending, arch, descending, thoracoabdominal aorta), surgical procedure and age group. Results : The total number of cases was approximately 40,000 and aortic dissection and non-dissection were almost the same. The number of cases was highest in the 70s, and in the elderly, the rates of root replacement (particularly valve-sparing operation) in the root-ascending aorta and open-chest surgery (prosthetic graft replacement, OAR ; open stent graft, Open SG) in the arch, descending and thoracoabdominal aorta were lower. The outcome by procedure showed the lowest mortality and morbidity rate of valve-sparing in the root-ascending region, and lower mortality and morbidity (cerebral infarction, renal failure, and pneumonia) in non-open-chest procedures (TEVAR with/without branch reconstruction) than those in open-chest procedures in the arch, descending and thoracoabdominal regions. Unlike other complications, the incidence of paraplegia in the arch was lower in OAR than in non-open-chest procedures. With regards to age, the operative mortality in patients aged 80 or older was significantly higher than those under 80 for all surgical procedures in the root-ascending, arch and descending regions. Conclusions : Thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic surgery in Japan was most often performed in elderly patients in their 70s with an overall good mortality rate of 5.3%. Mortality and postoperative morbidity in patients aged 80 or older were still high. Further improvement of surgical results is required.
Background and Purpose : Patients who undergo cardiac and thoracic vascular surgery are known to have a high risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). The incidence of post-operative acute renal failure and the utility of continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) for acute renal failure following cardiovascular surgery was determined. Subjects and Methods : Of the 321 subjects who underwent cardiac and thoracic vascular surgery accompanied by an open thoracotomy from January 2014 to August 2017, 303 patients were included in this study after excluding those who received maintenance dialysis and those treated with PCPS. Patients were grouped based on the GFR classification of CKD severity (preoperative eGFR values : G1 : ≥90, G2 : <90, G3a : <60, G3b : <45, G4 : <30, G5 : <15) and patient records were retrospectively examined. Results : The total incidence of AKI was 30.7%. In comparison with G1 and G2, the AKI incidence rate was significantly higher (p<0.01) in G3a, G3b, G4, and G5 patients who displayed preoperative renal dysfunction. Upon multivariate analysis, preoperative eGFR values were shown to be a predictor of post-operative AKI avoidance with a cutoff value of 56 ml/min/1.73 m2 (odds ratio = 4.104, AUC = 0.6954). The post-operative CHDF introduction rate was 3.6%. After introduction of CHDF, patient urine volume and body blood pressure significantly increased (p < 0.01). In 2 cases, a rapid increase of urine volume (2.5 ml/kg/h, 1.8 ml/kg/h) was observed within 1 h after the induction of CHDF. Conclusions : A high rate of post-operative AKI onset occurs in cardiac and thoracic surgery cases. Upon early introduction of post-operative CHDF, prompt recovery of renal function and stabilization of circulatory dynamics can be expected.
We report a successful conversion of anti-coagulant therapy from warfarin to heparin for a case of mechanical heart valve and warfarin-induced skin ulcer. A 57-year-old female who was diagnosed with Ebstein disease and underwent mechanical valve replacement suffered from a recurring and resistant leg skin ulcer. Nine years after the induction of warfarin, her right leg skin ulcer occurred suddenly and worsened gradually. No dermatological treatment could cure it and three auto-skin transplantations were performed in the past four years. The definitive cause of the ulcer could not be diagnosed by any laboratory study or image inspection. Further, after every transplant surgery, the resumption of warfarin had made her ulcer recur and worsen. Therefore, we finally came to think of this disease as the warfarin-induced skin ulcer. To avoid warfarin, subcutaneous self-injection therapy of Heparin-Ca was applied as her anti-coagulation after the 4th transplant surgery. The patient was discharged from hospital on post-operative day 78 with a good condition of the transplanted skin graft and right leg. An adequate level of APTT could be maintained with injections of 10,000 units of Heparin-Ca twice a day and data on D Dimer and cardiac echography show no thromboembolism at the out-patient visits. The result of auto-skin transplantation is also a good course under this therapy. As we have very few reports concerning heparin self-injection therapy for artificial valves, it is very important that careful observation should be continued.
A nine-month-old boy with a prenatal diagnosis of aorto-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) and aortic valve disease underwent an urgent ALVT patch closure approximately 2 h after birth. The patient subsequently developed airway compression due to the progressive dilatation of the ascending aorta postoperatively associated with aortic regurgitation and stenosis. After 9 months of prolonged respiratory symptoms following the ALVT repair, he underwent a posterior plication of the ascending aorta. After plication, the tracheal compression and respiratory symptoms improved. A computed tomography (CT) scan 1 month after surgery revealed significant free space between the aorta and the trachea, which relieved the aortic compression. Posterior plication of the ascending aorta is achieved by resecting the posterior aortic wall adjacent to the airway. It is the procedure of choice for longer and more effective relief of airway compression compared to other procedures such as anterior aortopexy, the lateral sliding technique, and side clamp plication.
A 51-year-old woman presented with a high fever and weakness and was diagnosed with mitral valve infective endocarditis. Medical treatment was unsuccessful, and the patient developed disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, multiple cerebral infarctions, and massive cerebral hemorrhage. She was transferred to our hospital for surgical treatment. On admission, she had motor aphasia and right-sided hemiplegia. Echocardiography showed mild mitral regurgitation with a huge mobile vegetation measuring greater than 20 mm on the anterior leaflets. Head CT showed a huge cerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. Chest radiography revealed severe pulmonary congestion, and laboratory data showed disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome. Despite medical treatment, the pulmonary congestion worsened. There were concerns that a fatal cerebral infarction would develop, and so urgent open-heart surgery was performed. On the day after the cerebral hemorrhage had occurred, hematoma removal and decompressive craniotomy were performed to reduce the risks associated with cardiopulmonary bypass. Four days after the craniotomy, mitral valve plasty was performed following the complete excision of the infected tissue. Heparin was administered at our normal dosage as an anticoagulant during cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative head CT showed no aggravation of the preoperative cerebral lesion. The patient still had symptomatic epilepsy and difficulty performing exact movements with her right hand, but she was able to walk unaided after 1 year of rehabilitation. Generally, early surgery for infective endocarditis is not recommended if the patient has concomitant cerebral hemorrhage ; our strategy may be the safest option for patients in such a serious condition.
A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to anorexia. An echocardiogram demonstrated severe mitral valve regurgitation and vegetation located on the valve. We diagnosed infective endocarditis and started to treat with antibiotics. During antibiotics treatment, cerebral hemorrhage was caused by rupture of an infectious cerebral aneurysm. She was treated by surgical operation. Waiting for cardiac surgery, she had sudden chest pain. Electrocardiogram examination demonstrated an anterior acute myocardial infarction. Emergency coronary angiogram revealed complete obstruction of the left anterior descending coronary artery. She was successfully treated with thrombus aspiration using a catheter device and stenting. However, she was in cardiogenic shock and her blood pressure could not be maintained with catecholamine and IABP. We performed emergency mitral valve replacement. After surgery, the circulation dynamics improved and she was discharged from the hospital.
Dabigatran is a new/direct oral anticoagulant drug unlike warfarin. It is being increasingly used to prevent thromboembolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. We present the case of a 77-year-old woman with a giant left atrial thrombus in spite of anticoagulation therapy with dabigatran 300 mg/day. She had developed a cerebral infarction 18 months previously and was switched from warfarin to dabigatran. However, magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple new cerebral infarcts, and computed tomography scan and echocardiogram revealed a giant thrombus measuring 37×29 mm in the left atrium. Thrombectomy and left atrial appendage closure were urgently performed. Dabigatran was changed to warfarin again after the operation. She has had no recurrent thromboembolic event since then.
A 62-year-old man with Marfan syndrome had a modified Bentall procedure and total arch replacement for annuloaortic ectasia, aortic insufficiency and thoracic aortic aneurysm fifteen years ago at another hospital. A follow-up CT revealed bilateral coronary artery aneurysms and an aortic root pseudoaneurysm, and thus he was referred to our hospital. The previous prosthetic valve was removed, followed by the re-Bentall procedure. Coronary artery aneurysms were resected and consequently coronary arteries were reconstructed directly. Although the shortcoming of the Bentall procedure was pseudoaneurysm, the outcomes of the modified Bentall procedure have shown some improvements. However, as there is still a high risk of postoperative complication in connective tissue diseases, long-term follow-up is required.
Medtronic Freestyle Stentless bioprosthesis as well as stented bioprosthesis, can lead to structural valve deterioration (SVD) or disruption of the porcine aortic root. Seventeen years ago, a 52-year-old woman with aortitis syndrome underwent aortic root replacement in a full-root fashion for aortic regurgitation (AR) with a Freestyle aortic bioprosthesis. A recent follow-up echocardiogram revealed severe AR due possibly to SVD. Thus, we planned an aortic valve replacement (AVR) for AR with possible leaflet tear of the prosthesis. Upon completion of AVR while the aortotomy was being closed, however, a disruption in the porcine aortic wall was found. Root replacement had to be performed because of this finding. In stentless valve reoperation long after AVR with the full-root method, both the porcine aortic root and leaflets can be disrupted. Aortic root replacement may be necessary if preoperative images reveal dilatation, as well as disruption of the sinus of Valsalva.
A 71-year-old woman with a history of closed commissurotomy for mitral valve stenosis 44 year ago, was diagnosed with left ventricular aneurysm by transthoracic echocardiography. She had no symptom of left ventricular aneurysm. Since there was a high risk of left ventricular rupture, we decided to undertake surgical treatment. During the surgery, we found artificial material near the left ventricular aneurysm. We resected the aneurysm wall and closed the ventricular wall using felt strip reinforcement. The wall of the aneurysm had no myocardium upon pathological examination. We diagnosed that it was a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm, and it seemed to be formed by blood oozing from the apical repair point of the hole for the dilator to perform mitral valvulotomy. The postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged on postoperative day 20. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm often results after myocardial infarction, and reports after cardiac surgery are rare, except in cases after mitral valve replacement. We hereby report our experience with this rare case
A 36-year-old man underwent direct closure of an atrial septal defect through median sternotomy at the age of 14. He also underwent a mitral valve replacement with tricuspid annuloplasty using the same approach at the age of 18. The patient also presented with pretibial edema and congestive liver disease at the age of 27 and the pretibial edema progressed at the age of 35. Hypoalbuminemia (TP ; 3.6 g/dl, Alb ; 1.6 g/dl) was also observed. Further examinations were performed, which revealed that the right ventricular pressure curve presented a dip and plateau pattern by cardiac catheterization. Computed tomography of the chest additionally revealed thickened and calcified pericardium in the left ventricle. Abdominal scintigraphy showed tracer accumulation in the transverse colon hepatic flexure 4 h after intravenous administration of technetium-99m-labelled human serum albumin. The patient was diagnosed with a protein-losing gastroenteropathy caused by constrictive pericarditis. He underwent pericardiectomy via left anterior thoracotomy without cardiopulmonary bypass. No complications were present after the surgery, and he was discharged after 46 postoperative days. Following his discharge from the hospital, the pretibial edema disappeared, and serum albumin levels gradually increased and normalized within 3 months after the surgery (TP 7.1 g/dl, Alb 4.2 g/dl).
A 74-year old man, presented with dyspnea following acute abdominal pain, was admitted to an initial hospital. The plain computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Emergency insertion of intra-aortic balloon occlusion (IABO) catheter was carried out due to his unstable hemodynamic condition. The patient was transferred to our hospital after surgical consultation. Open surgical repair was carried out, and massive retroperitoneal hematoma and excessive bowel edema made it difficult to close the abdomen primarily. Delayed closure following Open Abdomen Management (OAM) was effective.
An 84-year-old woman treated for tuberculosis in childhood presented to our emergency department with chronic cough and massive hemoptysis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) on admission revealed a bronchial-pulmonary artery fistula (BPAF) for which she underwent bronchial artery embolization (BAE) and developed hemoptysis postoperatively. Contrast-enhanced CT on admission revealed a connection between the right coronary and a bronchial artery, suggesting coronary-to-bronchial artery communication. Hemoptysis persisted despite coiling of a branch of the right coronary artery. Therefore, we were consulted to perform thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), which we performed as a semi-emergency. She did not show hemoptysis or paraplegia postoperatively and was discharged on postoperative day 40. TEVAR is effective for a BPAF in patients in whom BAE cannot control hemoptysis.