'The most important result of the growing interest in fiber in the 1970's was undoubtedly the growing acceptance of the concept that many, if not most, of the common non-infective diseases in more affluent countries are the direct result of life-style and must consequently be viewed as potentially preventable once the causative factors in the environment can be reduced or eliminated'
Effects of dietary addition of a viscous exudate of "Mekabu"(Sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida) on gastrointestinal tracts and plasma lipids were investigated in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 3% of the viscous exudate of "Mekabu" for 5 weeks. The food efficiency in the group fed the viscous exudate was significantly lower than in the control group. The relative tissue weights of the stomach and cecum were heavier in the rats fed the viscous exudate than in those fed the control diet. However, the relative weights of stomach, small intestine, cecum and colon contents did not vary between the two groups. These results suggest that the larger stomach and cecum in the rats fed the viscous exudate were attributable to the increase in thickness of the tissue walls. On the light micrographs, the thickness of the cecal muscularis externa was larger in the experimental than in the control rats. The bound water content of the cecal contents of the rats fed the viscous exudate were higher than those of the control rats. This may indicate that the viscous exudate of "Mekabu" increased the water-holding capacity of the gastrointestinal lumen contents. The viscous exudate of "Mekabu" did not affect the levels of plasma lipids.
Effects of ingestion of breakfast cereal containing wheat bran on both the fecal properties and the frequency and the feeling of defecation were investigated in 46 adolescent Japanese females. The subjects were devided into constipating and non-constipating groups and were given wheat bran cereal (WB) or placebo cereal (P) for a week in a cross-over manner. WB contained 5.64 g of dietary fiber per daily intake (40 g). Although the fecal volume and the frequency of defecation of the constipating group were significantly lower than those of non-constipating group, no significant difference in nutrient intake was observed between the groups under their ordinary conditions. Overall data indicated the existance of an inclination to constipation due to deficiency in dietary fiber in Japanese young females. However, the dietary fiber intake was significantly increased by taking WB(p<0.05). The frequency of defecation in both groups and the fecal volume in constipating group during the period of WB ingestion were significantly higher than those during the period of P ingestion (p<0.05). These results showed that the ingestion of WB effectively supplemented dietary fiber and improved defecation of adolescent females with a tendency to constipate.
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) which are indigestible sugars have many beneficial effects. These effects were partially caused of organic acids produced by luminal fermentation. In this study, we observed the daily variation of cecal fermentation using cecal fistula rats. Five weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and the fistula put on their cecum surgically. Rats with cecal fistula were divided into two groups (8 rats a group) and fed a control diet or 5% FOS containing diet between 10:00 and 16:00 (mealfeeding) for 6 days. On the third and sixth experimental days, cecal contents were collected every three hours for 24h. The pH and organic acids concentration of cecal contents were measured. On the three way ANOVA analysis, three main factors (FOS, sampling time, experimental days) affected on the cecal pH and lactate concentration. In conclusion, it is suggested that the daily variation on the cecal fermentation may arise in rats under specific dietary condition such as meal-feeding.
The study was performed to clarify a protective effect of barley and oats on gastric stress ulcerogenesis. Draft classified barley flour(75% yields) without any treatment of heating and addition of humidity, and Canadian oats flour(57% yields) as the materials of soluble dietary fiber, β-(1→4), (1→3)-glucan were used. Gastric stress ulcerogenesis induced by water immersion were conducted using SDjcl rats 5 weeks old(7 rats in one group). The results were as follows :1. The contents of soluble dietary fiber and β-(1→3)-glucan contents in barley flour and oats flour were4.60% and 5.54%, and 3.40% and 4.75%, respectively .2. The strong anti-ulcerogenesis was observed in rats fed on all the diets containing 10% and 5% of barleyand/or oats.3. The protective effect of barley flour was equivalent to that of oats flour in spite of the different β-(1→3)-glucan contents.4. The protective effects of 5% barley and oats diets reduced by about 50% the protective effects of 10% diets, respectively.