医薬品情報学
Online ISSN : 1883-423X
Print ISSN : 1345-1464
ISSN-L : 1345-1464
23 巻, 4 号
選択された号の論文の5件中1~5を表示しています
原著
  • 中島 誠, 高橋 武士, 中木原 由佳, 林 秀樹
    2022 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 155-165
    発行日: 2022/02/28
    公開日: 2022/05/27
    ジャーナル フリー

    Objective: Antibiogram preparation is important for the proper selection of antimicrobial agent in empiric therapy. It is recommended to prepare the antibiogram separately for inpatients and outpatients. However, the antimicrobial agent susceptibility of bacteria detected from an inpatient is thought to be different when detected at an early date after admission and after a certain period after admission.

    Methods: In this study, we defined the bacteria detected from an inpatient within 3 days after admission as “brought bacteria” and those over 3 days after admission as “bacteria detected after admission.” Antimicrobial agent susceptibilities of brought bacteria and bacteria detected after admission in our hospital between April 2018 and March 2019 were compared for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Results: The occurrence rate of Escherichia coli producing an extended β-lactamase of bacteria detected after admission was found to be significantly higher compared with that of brought bacteria. The sulbactam/ampicillin susceptibility rate of bacteria detected after admission was significantly lower than that of brought bacteria. The occurrence rate of the two drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa detected after admission tends to be higher compared with that of brought bacteria.

    Conclusion: Our findings showed that the susceptibility rate of some drugs differed substantially between brought bacteria and bacteria detected after admission. Therefore, the inpatient’s antibiogram is thought to be prepared by separating bacteria detected at an early date after admission and after a certain period after admission, leading to the proper selection of antimicrobial agent in empiric therapy tailored to a patient’s number of days in the hospital.

  • 森次 幸男, 和田 耕治, 池田 俊也
    2022 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 166-177
    発行日: 2022/02/28
    公開日: 2022/05/27
    ジャーナル フリー

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the opinions of healthcare professional regarding the contributions of the Medical Affairs department. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors influencing and reasons for the contributions in the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic situation.

    Design/Methods: A web-based survey was conducted among healthcare professionals (Key Opinion Leader/Key Thought Leader, KOL/KTL) who had multiple contacts with the Medical Affairs department, Japan.

    Results: The responses of 141 KOL/KTLs in Japan were collected; 77.3% of the respondents indicated that the contributions of the Medical Affairs department exceeded their expectations (achieved the expected level of contribution). The most common responses were “the identification of unmet medical needs” and “the dissemination of medical and scientific information, providing advanced medical and scientific information;” other responses included “promoting sales of the company's drugs.” The requests from KOL/KTLs regarding quality were “knowledge about biological and clinical statistics” and “proposal and quick response ability from the perspective of medical staff and patients,” but these responses were partially different between physicians and pharmacists. COVID-19 has resulted in substantial changes, for example, “face-to-face” interactions have significantly decreased from 91.5 to 50.4% and “Online” interactions have significantly increased from 20.6 to 70.9%. However, the effects of the declaration of emergency state could not be identified. The KOL/KTLs requested to make the meeting times more appropriate, conduct in-depth two-way discussions, provide latest information, and discuss about professional manners and behaviors.

    Conclusion: In summary, regardless of the changes in the types of activities caused by COVID-19, the Medical Affairs department has made substantial contributions to healthcare professionals, who highly appreciated them. Furthermore, depending on responses of individuals whose expectations could not be met, areas of improvements have been suggested.

短報
  • 森田 陽介, 渡邉 享平, 古俵 孝明, 坪田 有未, 矢野 良一, 塚本 仁, 後藤 伸之
    2022 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 178-182
    発行日: 2022/02/28
    公開日: 2022/05/27
    ジャーナル フリー

    Objective: In this study, we investigated the occurrence of skin damage following the initiation of low-dose lamotrigine.

    Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of skin disorders within 8 weeks of the start of lamotrigine administration, prescribing for 3 years from July 2014 to June 2016.In addition, we also confirmed the onset time of skin disorders in the low- and normal-dose groups.

    Results: The incidence of skin damage was 7.7 and 24.6 % in the low- and normal-dose lamotrigine start groups, respectively. The onset of skin disorders was relatively early in the normal-dose lamotrigine start group.On the other hand, no tendency was found in the low-dose lamotrigine start group because the number of cases was small.

    Conclusion: The initiation of low-dose lamotrigine and extension of introduction period might reduce the onset of early skin damage.

  • 森 卓之, 木村 美智男, 大塚 崇史, 安達 志乃, 宇佐美 英績, 中村 光浩, 吉村 知哲
    2022 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 183-188
    発行日: 2022/02/28
    公開日: 2022/05/27
    ジャーナル フリー

    Objective: Confirmation by pharmacists of brought-in drugs is not only limited to identification of drugs, but also requires prescription design and proposals based on the background of patients and evaluation of associated information. In this study, we analyzed the content of brought-in drugs related PreAVOID reports in our hospital according to the years of pharmacist experience in order to help educate pharmacist for better brought-in drugs confirmation.

    Method: Various interventions regarding brought-in drugs were compared between two groups: pharmacists with >6 years of experience (group H) and those with < 5 years of experience (group L). PreAVOID reports, which related to drugs brought in by patients admitted to the Ogaki Municipal Hospital between April 1, 2018 and March 31, 2019 were assessed.

    Result:The PreAVOID reporting rate for the number of brought-in drugs confirmed was higher in group H (1.56%) than in group L (1.12%) (odds ratio 1.399, p = 0.023). The PreAVOID reporting rate when reporting was based solely on prescription information did not differ between these two groups, but when patient background, including disease-related information, was included with prescription information, the rate was higher in group H (0.80%) than in group L (0.30%) (odds ratio 2.725, p < 0.001). Group H provided more reports related to unnecessary drugs.

    Conclusion: The involvement of pharmacists in the evaluation of brought-in drugs is important when reviewing subsequent medical treatments. Our findings suggest that to improve the quality of treatment, it is necessary to provide appropriate newcomer education, such as conducting case studies using PreAVOID cases.

資料
  • 小清水 敏昌
    2022 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 189-196
    発行日: 2022/02/28
    公開日: 2022/05/27
    ジャーナル フリー

    Objective: To evaluate the editing of “ Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics ”, which is well known as a resource for the te aching of pharmacology.

    Methods: The text has been edited 13 times between 1941, when it was first published, and 2018, the latest (13th) edition. We examined and compared the transition of each of the editions and their content.

    Results: In fact, one of the editors was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1994. Moreover, from the first edition of this text, the term “pharmacodynamics” was applied to the usage of medicine useful. As the four important basic principles in drug therapy of the book are continuously edited, it is used in School of Medicine for the teaching of pharmacology and is highly regarded.

    Conclusions: This book is high-quality one edited with the latest information and shares new drug in the field of pharmacology. We should surely recognize the usefulness of this resource.

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