The study involved quantitative and qualitative analysis of the interaction between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and therapists. The data were collected by means of participant observation of group therapy sessions. Results included the following four findings: (1) the therapists functioned as mediators between the children while mutual trust among group members was established; (2) the therapists provided in-depth support to help children collaborate with each other after sufficient trust had been developed; (3) toward the end of group therapy sessions, increased social behavior could be observed in each child, as exhibited by their attitudes toward the self-other boundary and their collaborative participation ; and (4) the process of social development was observed along three dimensions -from self-centeredness to understanding others, from a marginal to center position, and from isolation to greater engagement with others. Future studies should examine more closely the difference between children with ASD and typically developing children with regard to the process of developing self-other understanding.
This study examined the effects of a school camp program on children's expectations and concerns about transition to junior high school. At the camp, 6th grade children from several elementary schools, who were supposed to enter the same junior high school, participated in communication activities and lectures provided by junior high school teachers. A preliminary questionnaire survey was conducted with 180 children to develop a scale to measure expectations and concerns regarding transition to junior high school. Factor analyses indicated that a four-factor model to measure expectations and concerns regarding both academic and social areas showed the best fit, displaying high reliability and validity. Next, main surveys to examine the effects of the school camp were conducted with 155 6th grade children. Participants' expectations and concerns were measured with pre-, post-, and follow-up tests. Results showed that children who wanted to spend school time at the infirmary or in a counseling room increased expectations of new friendships at junior high school. These effects continued after three months.
This study aimed at exploring and identifying forms of parental conflict and co-parenting after separation or divorce. A total of 14 men and women—with children in their late teens and parents in their 40s—were interviewed. Their responses were categorized on the basis of the interview content, generating the following types of parental conflict: “bad-mouthing,” “caught between parents,” and “ongoing quarrels,” as well as parental cooperation in terms of “economic support,” “parenting time,” and “trust between parents.” We performed a correspondence analysis, which grouped responses into three types—“cooperation/continuation of parenting time,” “caught between parents/interruption of parenting time,” and bad-mouthing/no parenting time.” Case studies were conducted to compare each type with the experiences and significance of divorce. In the latter two groups, while many felt that they had experienced a negative influence, there were also many who felt positively about the divorce of their parents.
This study aims to analyze—from a socio-cultural perspective—learning processes of students with moderate intellectual disabilities (MOID) and characteristics of teacher feedback when supporting such students. Interactions of an MOID student participant were analyzed within the context of seven mathematics lessons, which showed that the teacher's feedback of requesting the student to solve problems independently while maintaining a high level of motivation made the participant more proactive in solving tasks. Time lags were also observed between the beginning of the lessons and that of the student's proactive actions, as well as between the beginning of the proactive actions and the first correct answer. The student's performance showed an increasing potential for giving correct answers. These findings suggest that it is important to provide long-term support for students' active learning and to focus on their learning process so as to evaluate the potential for giving correct answers.