This investigation is projected by the Japanese Society for the Study of Education to test the pupil's achievement at the end of compulsory education age. Tests are constructed not only to measure the effect of learning, but to investigate the required ability to accomplish the compulsory education. The selected school subjects arelanguage, mathematics, social study and science. 7000 pupils of 9th grade are sampled from 123 schools in all parts of the country, stratified by the 18 grades of uroanization. For the purpose of our investigation, following problems may be discussed. 1. How is it possible to establish the norm or scale of evalution? 2. Is it possibleto, standardize the pupil's achievement? 3. How does the individual difference appear? 4. What does the sex difference represent? 5. What does the regional difference mean? 6. Why does the school difference occur?. 1 The established norm is ahistorical and social need and a working hypothesis of curriculum reconstruction. 2. If the pupil's achievement is evaluated by the grade based on CA, the test scale which represents the normal distribution of abilities may not be recognized as the standard. The standard of achievement must represent the ability achieved by at least above 75% of pupils and the distribution must represent a positive skewed curve. If EA or EQ is measured, the test scale must be standardized on the basis of σ of normal distribution. 3. The individual defference appears not only by the difference of IQ, but that of learning experiences. Because our resultsindicate that the range and shape of distribution differs by test in kind and the correlation between IQ and test score is less than that of test and test. 4. Generally boys gain better score than girls, but in some of test items girls' score is better than boys'. The sex difference may be possibly attributable to the difference of life experiences. 5. Generally pupils of urban districtsgain better score than those of country districts. But in some of test items we find many exceptional cases. The regional difference may be mainly attributable difference of life experiences. 6. The school difference may be attributable to the pupils' disposition and regional difference, but also seems to be determined by the teachers' quality, school planning and equipments. From results of response analysis we found many testitems which obtain correct answers only under 25%. It is necessary to investigate whether they are never learnedat'school or over the limit of pupil's learning ability at the end of compulsory education age. Summarily it may be said that such an intelligence as tested is an urbanized civil intelligence. On the contrary our living intelligence is an acclimatized native intelligence and expresses a cultural pattern withlocal color.
1. We have had many recording forms of personality evaluation in the development of Japanese elementary education. After the World War II, the new form was required and regulated for the aim to appreciate pupils more objectively as possible. Then as the recording technique, the Rating Scale method was adopted, and 22 appreciation items were selected. Japanese elementary school teachers have evaluated by this recording form since 1947. But, we have heard many critics at this form, that the form is too abstract, too arbitrary, is not able to be effective for pupil guidance, and so on. Now the more adequate form is needed. This is our problem and intention for this research. 2. I adopted the procedures as following; a) At first I designed my tentative recording form of personality evalution on the basis of my educational psychology. b) Then, I delivered the papers of this form to the teachers at various schools in Japan, to make them appreciate their pupils really according to this form. c) The teachers are required to compare the present recording form and my tentative recording form on the important items by the multiple choice method. 3. In my tentative form, there are 3 distinguished columns to be described in. a) To describe the concrete image of the pupil by the immediate impression of the teacher. The impression is apt to be subjective, but should not be excluded, because it is vivid and concrete, based on the physiognomical demand. b) To describe the behaviors or attitudes of the pupil by the teacher's immediate experience. c) To describe the behaviors or attitudes by observing intensively and comparing the pupils with each other. a) and b) are characteristic for my form, compared with the present recording form. 4. I received the answers from 440 teachers (27 schools), in Aomori, lwate, Miyagi, Niigata, Toyama, Nara, Mie, Wakayama, Osaka, Kyoto, Hyogo, and Kumamoto prefectures. Remarkable results are following, a) In which form is it easier to record the evalution? Present form 173 39% Tentative form 102 23% Same or others 165 37% b) By which form is the pupil's personality expressed better? Present form 46 10% Tentative form 306 69% Same or others 88 20% c) By which form is it more effective for future pupil-guidance? Present form 46 10% Tentative form 302 68% Same or others 73 21% d) At which form is the pupil appreciated more adequately? Present form 52 11% Tentative form 331 75% Same or others 57 12% These results show that my tentative form is difficult for recording, but more effective for appreciation, guidance and understanding the child personality as a whole.
The term “familiarity” is conceived, by Arsenian, as same as that of “being structured of situation.” So far as we understand it in this way, it is a functional conception, not a phenomenal description. In this approach, I will take up the problem from its phenomenal aspects. Here I want to follow the process of the transformation of an unfamiliar space to a familiar one. This process may be expressed in behavior. This experimental approach shows that the transformation is expressed in decreasing of the amount and kind of responses within a given time.
1. In the analysis of human-relationships in the psychology of adolescence, two ways of analysis should be considered: from “Its Objects” and from “Its Method”. The former dealt with classifications of humanrelationships such as an adolescent with parent, with friend, with opposite sex, and with teacher, etc., which are mainly descriptive, and the latter dealt with theoretical constructs such as motivation, role, and frame of reference, etc., and which are mainly explanative. Of course, these two ways should be used dialectically, but this article is concerned with the latter way of analysis. 2. The methodological considerations here contained the following three viewpoints. A) The viewpoints of “The Inner Psychodynamics”. 1. Strength of the tension in the human-relationships. 2. Depth of the personality-layer in the humanrelationships.(Mainly field theoretical consideration) 3. Motivations in the human-relationships. 4. Mechanisms in the human-relationships.(Mainly psychoanalytical consideration) B) The viewpoint of “Inter-personal relation”. 1. Role, technique (ways of adjustment), and frame of reference, in the human-relationships.(Mainly social-psychological consideration) 2. Basic-attitudes (the secondary social traits) in the human-relationships.(Mainly the personality- traits theory) C) The viewpoint of “The Everyday Experience”. Practical characteristics of the human-relationships, such as love, respect, and jealousy, etc.(Mainly the theory of philosophical anthropology) In these analyses, the writer presented some adolescents' compositions as examples, and as the background of human-relationships such concepts as “the structure of life-space”,“need for independence”,“need for social acceptance”,“ad miration”,“inferiority-complex”, and “self-aversion”, were taken into consideration. 3. Finally, the attempt was made to integrate these viewpoints into the theory which was referred to as “Psychology of Character-formation in Adolescent” This adolescent psychology should be treated not only to the problems of human development, but also to the problems of individual differences.