教育心理学研究
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1 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
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  • 正木 正
    1 巻 (1953) 2 号 p. 1-11,62
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    A. The Second Research.
    1. I continued to research on the recording form more deeply by the presedure following;
    a) I selected the two examples actually described in both present and tentative recording form, among the answers in the first research.
    b) These two examples of both forms were delivered to the teachers of elementary schools at various communities.(318 teachers of 16 schools)
    c) The teachers were required by the multiple choice on the following items, comparing the present fotm with the tentative form by the given examples.
    2. Result,(numbers and percentage choiced)
    (1) By which form is the pupil's personality exoressd better?
    (2) By whicn form is it more effective fox future pupil guidance?
    (3) At whioh form is the pupil appreciated more adequately?
    These results show that my tentative form is more effective for appreciation, guidance and understanding of child personality as a whole.
    B. The Third Research
    The aim of this researoh is to explore into and find out the essential structure of Personality Evaluation and its techniques. I delivered the questionairs to the educational psychologists, requirng their opinoions on the 8 questions, which I think to be essential on th3 problems of problems of Personality evaluation, especially in refe- rence to its recording forms.
    I received the answers from 24 of them. whith showed some excellent and deep ideas and sugges. tions on the problem.
    All they hoped that the present form should be revised and improved and the more effective form be planned. My tentative form is more effective, they thought, than the present form, but have some critical and problem points, which should be criticized, andlysed and determined more clearly.
    The Tentative Recording form. of Pupil's Person- ality Evaluation:
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  • 続 有恒
    1 巻 (1953) 2 号 p. 12-19,63
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    (1) 評定尺度による評定値は, その尺度の各目盛が, 一義的に客観的に規定されていない限り, 尺度の目盛の絶対値が意味があるのではなく, 二以上の評定値相互の相対的段階的関係こそ意味があるのであること。
    (2) しかしながら, そのような相対的な段階を区切るについては, 目下のところ, 如何なる方法が最も妥当であるかは, 断定できないこと。
    (3) 段階相互の一致, 不一致は, それぞれの極限においてこそ最も明らかであろうから, 価値基準の一致, 不一致はそのようなものを手掛りに行うべきであること。
    (4) また, 附け加えたいのは, ここに用いたような材料についての価値評定は, 専門家の価値基準との一致, 不一致を問題としているのではないことを注意したい。問題は, 評定の結果からする, 評定者または評定者群相互の比較に問題が限られているのである
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  • 牧田 稔, 高月 東一, 斎藤 定良, 岡本 淑人, 中村 陽一, 池内 一, 岡部 慶三, 水原 泰介
    1 巻 (1953) 2 号 p. 20-27,64
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    食前, 用便後等に石鹸を用いての手洗いを励行させようとする場合に, 被験者達に対して講義を行つてその必要と効果を力説する方法と, 被験者達にこれについて討議による集団決定を行わせる方法と何れがより有効な教育法であるかを実験的に検討した。
    女子大学の寮生に対して (1) 石鹸を用いての手洗いをどの程度に実行しているかを事前に調査し,(2) 3つの寮の代表者各10名づつに対して各寮別に講義を行い, 4つの寮の代表者10名づつに各寮別に討議による集団決定を行わせ,(3) 10日後に再び, 石鹸を用いての手洗いをどの程度に実行しているかを調査した。
    講義, 討議を行う前の調査の結果と, その10日後の調査の結果とを比較してみると, 討議群の方が講義群よりも石鹸を用いての手洗いの実行度の増加がより大であつた。討議や講義には直接参加しないで, 自分の寮の代表者達から石鹸を用いての手洗いについて勧告, 伝達を受けた寮生についても, 討議群の方が講義群よりも, その実行度がより多く増加する傾向が見られた。この結果は, 討議に参加した代表者の方が講義群代表者よりも, 残りの寮生に対する勧告, 伝達がより熱心であつたことを示すものと考えられる。
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  • 斎藤 幸一郎
    1 巻 (1953) 2 号 p. 28-34,65
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present investigation was conducted to determine the effect of social situation upon the dehavior of children engaged in play activities.
    The apparatus consisted of a miniature electric car and a loopline. The whole route was devided into four sections, each of which went in an dependent circuit. In each circuit was placed a switch. When this switch was turned in one direction, the circuit was cut and the running car was stopped, and when turned in the opposite direction, the car would start runing again. One of the sections had also two other switches, one a master switch which had control of all the circuits and the other one was connected with a buzzer which, when in operation, signalized the starting of the car. All the switches were connected with. a recorder which recorded automatically all the operations of the subjects with these switches on a sliding paper. The experimenter noted every significant word uttered by the subjects during the play and wrote it down on this paper with a pencil (Fig. 1 and 2 2 in the text).
    30 nine-year-old children including 20 boys and 10 girls participated in this experiment. Of these, 8 boys and 4 girls were trained in the play three times previous in the experiment, each session comprising 45 minutes. The children were devided into 3 groups of 10, each of which was furthur devided into 3 subgroups. Design of grouping follows:
    If you add these figures up, you will get 36. This is because, in each of the three groups, 2 of the 3 children who had previous experience participated twice as members of the two subgroups.
    4 children in a subgroup played together as a unit. One of the experienced children occupied the section with three switches. The other three were distributed to the remaining three sections. Thus, each child had control of at least one switch. The play consisted in the subject's operating the switch, thereby stopping the car as it ran. into his section and starting it again if he (she) so desired. One session of the experiment took 45 minutes.
    Results are summarized as follows:
    1) Smaller the number of the children with experience in a group, freer became the behavior of the children in it and vice versa.
    2) Children with previous training were, as it were, the carrier of the tradition which they themselves had established. In whichever subgroupthey were in, they tried unconsciousy to carry on this tradition. And through this tradition they influenced the other members of group.
    3) in cases where the numbers of the children with training and those without training were not equal, the former was more self-centered and not cooperative.
    It may be concluded generally that the child in a given soial situation will behave in accordance with the status assigned to him in that situation.
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  • 酒井 行雄
    1 巻 (1953) 2 号 p. 35-44,67
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    (1) 従来の研究結果から, 知能は20才前後に発達の頂点に達し, 其の後, 年齢と共に衰退するが, 40才の後半頃からこの衰退はその速度を増すように見え, 55 才頃には13-14才の知的作業水準にまで退行する。そしてこの傾向は年齢の増加と共に更に継続することがわかる。
    (2) 然し, 知能の衰えは, 知能検査の下位テストに現われる心的機能によつて甚だしい差異があり, 又検査に用いられた被験者によつても大きな差異がある。例えばもし, 知能には生得的な能力と, 経験によつて獲得せられる能力とを併せ含んでいるとするならば, 前者は年齢の影響を強く蒙るが後者はその影響を蒙ることが少ない。その結果, 65才頃には, 前者の作業得点は後者の半ばにまで減少すると報ぜられている。一方被験者群の異なるにつれて知能の減衰に非常な差が見られる) 同じ検査法によつて高年者に直接記憶を検査した結果, 一方の群は10才児以下に衰え, 他方は12才児以上の水準を示したと報ぜられている。
    (3) 然しこの度の研究の被験者は平均63才7月に至るも, 特に指摘すべき知能の衰退が検査成績には現われなかつた。その得点は15才の青年のそれに近く, 下位テストに現われた異る心的機能に於いてもその何れかが顕著な減衰を示すことはなかつた。
    (4) このように知能の衰えを示さないのは, 知能の質的優秀性によるのか, これを用いるか否かという環境的経験的原因によるのかは判明しない。これに関する学説にも一致するところがない。
    (5) 本研究は事例が僅少なことと, 比較群を持たないこととのために, 上記の問題に対して何等解決を与えることができない。これは将来の研究に待たねばならぬ。
    (6) 因子分析による最近の研究の展開は, 上述の多くの研究に示された知能の衰退の分析とよく符節を合するように思われる。知能の衰退の現象を明かにするには, 検査の結果に立脚して外から究明すると共に, 知能の因子の析出と, 各因子の関係の把捉によつて内から究明することに努めなくてはならぬであろう。
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  • 大平 勝馬
    1 巻 (1953) 2 号 p. 45-51,66
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper is a report on the study of the relation between personality and individual differences in menstruation which are observed in the length and the oscillation of its duration and its periodic time, and the conditon of physical impediment of menstruation.
    The research and experiment were made at the period, from April, 1952 to October, 1952.
    The number of subjects are 665-lower secondary school girls, upper secondary school girls, undergraduate univ. girls, and factory girls.
    The research in menstruation was done through questionnaires for six months continuously and the research in personality was, done by using Uchida's Kraepelin numeral addition test and Okabe and Awaji's emotional stability test. Moreover the author observed the emotional tone of menstruation through questionnaires. Then he examined the relation between the traits based upon the results of these research and experiment.
    The abstract of the result is as follows.
    1) The author found that there were fairly conspicuous individual differences in the traits of menstruation, especially in the degree of the oscillation of the duration and the periodic time. The subjects could be divided into three groups-high (long), middle, low (short)-on the statistical treatment of the traits of menstruation, or into two groups on the view of the existence of the cohditions of physical impediment. Then the author studied the character of the subjects in each group.
    2) The ‘high’ group of the oscillation of the duration and the periodic time and the group accompanied with the physical impediment indicated higher index about the effect of recess by Uchida's Kraepelin numeral addition test than the other groups, but they showed the fairly more abnormality about. the working curve and the degree of the oscillation of numeral addition than other groups.
    3) As the result of Okabe and Awaji's emotional stability test, the ‘long’ group of the duration of menstruation, the ‘high’ group of the oscillation in the duration and the periodic item, and the group accompanied with the physical impediment showed more emotional instability than the other groups.
    4) According to the result of questionnaires about emotional tone of menstruation, many of the ‘short’ group of duration, of the ‘low’ group of oscillation, and of the group without the physical impediment replied that they were not nervous at menstruation. But many of the ‘long’ group of the duration, of the ‘high’ group of the oscillation, and of the group with the impediment showed fairly conspicuous negative emotions.
    In a few words, it may be said that the individual traits of menstruation has Its effect on personality.
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  • 1 巻 (1953) 2 号 p. 61-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1 巻 (1953) 2 号 p. 61a-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1 巻 (1953) 2 号 p. 62
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
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