The aim of this investigation is to find out what effect “moral education” has on students, and thus to improve “moral education.” In order to advance the previous investigation of ours, this time the emphasis was put on the extent to which the taught materials are digested by students. The following data were used in the analysis; two hours' observation of each of three classes (8th grade), questionnaires given immediately after the class, interviews with sampled students, students' own essays written one month after the class, and questionnaires administeted five months after the class. One of the classes, which was a subject group of our previous investigation, was given new materials and the resulting change of the class procedure was examined. The investigation was conducted as follows: (1) Some improved categories which were selected out of the former trial categories were employed for the present analysis. The items consisted of the categories concerning (a) contents of utterances and (β) function of teachers' utterances. (2) The questionnaires and the essays were rated according to five grades, and the relation with the analysis of class procedure was examined. (3) The relation was examined between the reflection by the teacher himself after the class and the analysis by the categories. (4) Sampled students who were chosen from each class (2 from each) were interviewed for thirty minutes by a counselor with over 7 years' experiences. The interview was held immediately and five months after the class, and the degree of students' digestion of the taught materials was examined. By this interview, we tried to detect the profound feelings which could not be grasped by means of observation, tape-recording, essays, and questionnaires. According to the present investigation, analysis of class procedure by categories was proved to be effective and indispensable for the studies of “moral education.” The relation between students' essays and analysis based on the above-mentioned data was consistent with each other. The present investigation is the second stage of our continuing study of “moral education.” In the coming study, various problems concerning development of children, the effect of buzz-session method and the whole class discussion, and more dynamic grasping of teaching procedure will be examined.
This is the first report of the study carried out during the last 4 years. The objective of this research is to clarify the acquiring process of the number concept in children by the “method of experimental education.” Here, its problems, principles and methods are discussed. In the orthodox study of the developments of the children's number concept, the central problem seems to be the discovery of the hierarchy of the developmental stages of this, concept, as are typical in Piaget's or Werner's researches. In their theories, we think, it is assumed implicitly that the acquisition of number concept is initiated by internal factors such as maturation or readiness. There is no doubt that Piaget's study is one of the most brilliant works in this field. Internal factors, however, should de the most important determinant and the role of learning should have little significance, if the establishment of the order of developmental stages is the most important point concerning the number concept or mathematical education. But we think that in acquiring the number concept the symbolic mediation process is sine qua non, which has cultural origin. So, the external factors, learning, experience or education should have equal importance. Does the term “maturation” mean after all the sudden appearance of new behavior pattern? It is extremely difficult to tell whether such behavior pattern is caused by maturation or by experience. Using the traditional method of simple observation of the developmental phenomena, it might not be possible to determine the significance or the role of maturation in causal relations. This methodological ref lexion leads us to the point that the method of exprimental control of the developmental processes has to be applied in order to get basic solution of the role of maturation or experience. Such method has already been used by Gesell and Luria successfully. We try to extend the same type of method into a more general methodology and give a name of “the method of experimental education.” It has analogical significance with the method of experimental embryology in biology. That is to say, the method of experimental education applies some operations on the apparently natural process of the number development, and tries to find out, by theconsequent responses, what causal factors are working on it. In the area of the developmental study of number concept up to date, the main theories have been to discover the natural sequence of developmental stages, and paid little attention to the role of learning or experience. However, the number has highly systematic characters, and can only be acquired according to cerfain order. Therefore, it is necessary to attempt to give the number concept to children according to certain order. We consider that the essential character of number concept is not the abstraction of the numerical between numerical operations such as like plus and minus, and the operations of relationships between concrete objects. The numerical operations, however, have highly abstract characteristics, while, the operation of objects is possible by the concrete way of thinking. There is so much discrepancy between these two dimensions. Mediating them, we use here the dice-patterns as the semi-concrete and semi-abstract dimension. By the above principle, the model of learning process is discussed and the actually performed schedule of the research is presented.
Purpose: The purposes of this study are, first, to treat unbalanced diet of children by Image-association method, and secondly, to form experimentally unbalanced diet of adults who show aversion of the milk, remove it and investigate the effect of the Image-association method and Post hypnotic suggestion. Procedure: According to this purpose the following process is taken (1) The children who have unbalanced diet were selected by means of a check list for unbalanced diet of children and treatment was given only to ten children who wanted it, by Image inducing method, Amnesia method, Direct suggestion method, Motion picture method, Age regression method, Inducing dream method and so on.(2) a. Two boy and three girl students of a college, who liked milk and were not recognized to have unbalanced diet, were selected. Everyday they were led to hypnotism half an hour and by the Image-association method and Post hypnotic-suggestion the negative attitude against milk was forme.. Only after examination it was removed. b. Two boy students of a college were selected who liked milk and were not recognized to have unbalanced diet. Their dislike of milk was formed through negative suggestion and they were left as they were in order to see the process of natural removement of the suggestion. Results: (1) During this investigation period, eight children out of ten received complete treatment. By investigation six months later one out of the ten returned to the former state. Therefore the treatment percentage reduced to 70%. The difference between the experimental group and the control group was significant.(2) a. After giving the students negative suggestion for the third time it became just impossible for them to drink the milk. Even after the third time by giving removing suggestion it became possible. b. Their negative attitude against milk was seen the third or fourth time. Then it was left as it was, and S 1 was restored to the former state on the 24th day and S 2 on the 5th. Discussions: (1) It is suggested that there is a close relationship between the hypnotic suggestion and the attitude, and that treatment of unbalanced diet by hypnotic method is effective.(2) In adults the change of attitude by giving suggestion is noticed, and it is suggested that the Image-association means to treat their undalanced diet.
The health of premature children (under 2500g) was studied by a questionnaire form sent to 304 mothers of premature children and 102 mothers of mature children. Results indicated that, under 6 years old, the premature children tended to catch a cold and to get fever more easily than the mature children; at the age of six, there was no difference between them of the health condition. A study of mental characteristics did not indicate any significant difference of I. Q. According to the C. A. T., it was revealed that the premature children show more “baby wishes” than the mature children; while more “adult wishes” were found in the mature children than the premature children. A parent's attitude scale showed an over-protective attitude in the mothers of the premature.