In this compartive study, we were mainly concerned with questions, such as “What kind of difficulties in lip-reading are overcome by speech-hearing under the best condition of the use of residual hearing?” “Is the basic capacity in speechperception fully utilized or not?” and “How many erroneous responses in speech-reception can be classified in a sytematic order of approximation to speech stimuli?”. The eight adolescents who took part in our two experiments had hearing losses over sixty db at several frequencies of pure tones. Among them, the subject “A” was slightly deafened in her early school age, and had near-total loss of hearing in her adolescence. Although the subject “B” had been deafened severely before his infancy, his hearing losses were not over seventy db at a recent date. Both of A and B had good reading abilities and normal intelligence. Their lip-reading abilities were above average. In this paper the experimental data of these two subjects are analyzed in detail. In our first experiment, 542 speech-stimuli (in-eluding words, phrases, short incomplete sentences and small numbers of nonsensical syllables) were arranged in 476 pairs of speech-stimuli. Each subject was asked (1) to judge whether the two speech-stimuli of each pair were perceived as same stimuli or not,(2) to record the speech by syllable-letters,(3) to make a confidence-rating in an attempt to estimate his or her accuracy of response. In the second experiment, the relations between errone-ous responses to a few speech-stimuli were followed up with successive four experiments of speech-reception. As to the subject A and B, we infer 1. Their difficulties in speech-reception lie in: (a) the same words were frequently judged to be different words,(b) the chain of erroneous responses spread to a considerable extent,(c) expressions of self-confidence to the responses were not successful,(d) the correct reception of nonsensical syllables was impossible. 2. In a training of their speech-reception, it would be important to note: (a) the pairs of speech-stimuli were highly discriminated by speech-hearing,(b) many erroneous responses by lip-reading follow the rule-of-homophenous-response,(c) there were characteristic differences in quality of erroneous response between speech-hearing and lip-reading,(d) many different kinds of difficulties in lip-reading were sufficiently overcome by speech-hearing ; however, lip-reading also had some advantages,(e) there was a qualitative difference between subject A and Subject B.
The purpose of this investigation is to construct a new inventory for the measurement of neuroticism and extraversion-introversion. The First Trial Inventory As the first trial, the author composed an inventory of 78 items, which was divided into 4 groups as follows; E-I Group (20 items), N Group (20 items), Eg-1Group (19 items), and Eg-2 Group (19 items). The inventory was administered to 156 junior high school pupils. The tetrachoric correlations between the items within each group were calculated, and factor analysis was executed by Thurstone's centroid method. The factors after orthogonal rotations of axes were interpreted as follows. Thinking introversion, and Social extraversion from the E-I group. Delicacy, Lack of Con fidence, and Anxiety from the N group. Self-sufficiency, and, Emotionality from the Eg-1 group. Ego-strenth, Ego-centricity, and Ego-defence from the Eg-2 group. The Second Trial Inventory As the second step, another new inventory was composed discarding 8 items from the foregoing inventory, and adding 32 new items. The new inventory was divided into 5 groups as follows; E-I Group (20 items), D-C Group (22 items), Anx Group (20 items), S-Eg Group (20 items), As-Ce Group (20 items). The inventory was administered to 193 senior high school pupils. The factors extracted in this case were interpreted as follows; Social extraversion, and Thinking-introversion from the E-I group, Dilicacy, Emotionality, and Lack of Confidence from the D-C group, Psychogenic anxiety, and Somatic Symptoms of Anxiety from the Anx group, Self-sufficiency, and Ego-centricity, and Ego-maturity from the As-Ce group. Most of the factors corresponded to those which were extracted from the first trial inventory. Inventory for Practical Use Eighty seven items loading high onto the 10 factors (excepting Self-sufficiency) were selected, and a third inventory was composed for practical use. This inventory was administered to 1262 subjects, including junior high pupils, senior high school pupils, and college students. They were divided into two groups; one the younger group and the other the elder group. Scores of traits (factors) were correlated and factor analyzed for both groups separately. Four second order factors were extracted for both groups. In regard to the patterns of factor loadings, the four factors of the one group showed close resemblances to the four factors of the other group, The factors were interpreted as follows; 1. Hypochondria. 2. Ego-tonicity and Emotionality. 3. Surgencydisurgency. 4. Thinking introversion and extraversion.