The purposes of this study are, first, to clarify the teachers'teaching patterns and pupils'behaviors in the classes for the mentally retarded, and secondly, to evaluate the effects of such patterns of teaching, not at the ideational level, but at the more concreate and practical level. Two classes for the mentally retarded in two secondary schools, which had already been verified in our previous research as having different typical patterns, were chosen as our samples for the following case study. In the present study, we attempted to observe and evaluate the classes under two kinds of conditions. One is to clarify the teaching pattern shown by each teacher and the pupils'behavior in the regular class-room situation, and the other is to analyze the pupils'behavior changes in the experimentally constructed situations where the temporary leaders, taking the place of the regular staffs, are to take their roles as either directive or non-directive type of leadership. As our procedure, such a teaching situation was filmed and recorded at the first step.Then some raters were instructed to rate the teacher-pupil interaction, teacher's personality, class-room atmosphere and pupils'behavior using seven point scales. The main results were as follows: 1) In the two classes, different characteristics were respectively marked in the teacher's activity for the pupils in the practical class-room situation. This is assumed to be identified with the findings in our previous study just one year before. 2) Pupils' behavior in the experimental situation seemed to be considerably influenced by the types of the teaching pattern in the regular class-room situation.The pupils who were regularly educated under the more emancipatory teaching pattern, behaved more freely under the two types of leadership by the temporary leaders.The other pupils under the more copulsory teaching pattern, on the other hand, showed remarkably the constrictive and timid attitude, not only under the directive type of leadership, but also under, the non-directive type in the experimental situation.
The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that isolates with low sociometric status would reveal more indications of anxiety than would leaders with the high sociometric status. A sociometric test consisting of following three criteria,‘grouping’,‘play’ and ‘study’ was administered to 626 sixth graders out of 15 classes to select the following three groups of subjects: ‘rejectees’,‘neglectees’ and ‘leaders’.The general anxiety test and the Rorschach test were then given to all the subjects. The findings are as follows: The results of the general anxiety test standardized by TAKEN revealed that both rejectees and neglectees were more anxious than leaders.There was a statistically significant difference in the tendency for loneliness between rejectees and leaders. Likewise, there were significant differences in the anxiety tendency for learning and in the total anxiety tendency between neglectees and leaders. The anxiety index by R. M. Eichler and one by S.B.Sarason and F.N.Cox were adopted as the anxiety indices in terms of the Rorschach test.It was shown that rejectees and neglectees were more anxious in their responses with these indices than leaders. The higher degree of anxiety by isolates was interpreted to show dissatisfaction of need for belongingness to the group, on the basis of the interwoven effects of their personality characteristics reflected on their responses to the Rorschach test and the environmental condition in which they were pressed and rejected by their peers.
Three empirical findings concerning the responses of the intermediate stage of number conservation are to be presented and discussed from the view-point of the change of dominance between perceptual and numerical-inferential cues. (A) Responses on conservation tasks given to Ss of our previous experimental education of number conception were examined for i) consis tency of conservation responses to various sub-items, ii) reliability of conservation responses with a2-week interval.Four out of 8 conservation sub-items given were as follows: After S recognized the equivalence of two collections, E transformed one of them into the prescribed configurations and asked S,“Now, which is more?” Other 4 sub-items concerend the invariance of the quantity of a set beforeand after transformations. The results showed: i) The number of elements in a set or the type of transformations had little effect on the difficulty of items, though the conservation tasks without a standard stimulus (a nontransformed collection) were the more difficult. About 80-85% of 109 5-and 6-year-old childrenmade internally consistent responses, i.e., conservation or nonconservation response to all of the4items. ii) About 70% of 50 children made 4 consistent conservation or non-conservation responses in both of the tests, administered at a two-week interval, and more than 90%, fell in the same category if the distinction was made between 4-conservationrespondents and others. (B) An experiment was carried out to examine the effect of suggestion or counter-suggestion upon responses at conservation tasks.i) Nine 5-yearold children, who had been non-conservers in the ordinary conservation situation, were given suggestions to use numerical rather than perceptual cues. For three of then, the mode of response changed completely and made conservation responses at the test one-week later.Further 2 of them showed a little fluctuation to suggestions but finally settled down at the non-conservation stage.The other 4 children showed no sign of change in the positive direction. ii) On the contrary, [8 5-year-old children, who had always made correct responses at number conservation tasks with a standard stimulus, were given counter-suggestions to emphasize perceptual differences generated by the transformation of one collection. Although one of them regressed to the non-coservation stage, the other 7 did not show any instabilities. (C) The extinction of principle of number conservation was attempted.This experiment, which copied Smedslund's procedure, was to observe children's responses to the tricky situation in which number (quantity of a collection) did not conserve with. spatial transformations.Five out of 9 5-year-old children, who had acquired conservation spontaneously, and 4 out of 7 children who had learned conservation by one of the two training curricula, resisted the attempt at extinction and often interpreted apparent non-conservation as meaning that one element was added or taken away secretly.The remaining. 7 children easily gave up the concept of conservation after 2 or 3 cheating trials and warranted nonconservation by perceptual reasons.It must be noted that 4 non-extinguished children among conservers-by-training were those who had been given the curriculum inducing number conservation by the imagination of inter-number relations, the 3 extin guised were these who had only been given repeat ed confirmation of invariance of a set by counting. Also discussed in detail were the implications of these empirical evidences to process or dynamics. of transition from perceptual-cue-dominance to numerical-inference-cue-dominance as well as appreciated effects of various training procedures.