教育心理学研究
検索
OR
閲覧
検索
13 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
    • |<
    • <
    • 1
    • >
    • >|
  • 村上 英治, 冨安 芳和, 荻野 惺, 大西 誠一郎, 丸井 文男, 鈴木 康平, 山田 良一, 生源寺 靖浩, 久留 一郎, 岩井 文子, ...
    13 巻 (1965) 3 号 p. 129-140,187
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purposes of this study are, first, to clarify the teachers'teaching patterns and pupils'behaviors in the classes for the mentally retarded, and secondly, to evaluate the effects of such patterns of teaching, not at the ideational level, but at the more concreate and practical level.
    Two classes for the mentally retarded in two secondary schools, which had already been verified in our previous research as having different typical patterns, were chosen as our samples for the following case study.
    In the present study, we attempted to observe and evaluate the classes under two kinds of conditions. One is to clarify the teaching pattern shown by each teacher and the pupils'behavior in the regular class-room situation, and the other is to analyze the pupils'behavior changes in the experimentally constructed situations where the temporary leaders, taking the place of the regular staffs, are to take their roles as either directive or non-directive type of leadership.
    As our procedure, such a teaching situation was filmed and recorded at the first step.Then some raters were instructed to rate the teacher-pupil interaction, teacher's personality, class-room atmosphere and pupils'behavior using seven point scales.
    The main results were as follows:
    1) In the two classes, different characteristics were respectively marked in the teacher's activity for the pupils in the practical class-room situation. This is assumed to be identified with the findings in our previous study just one year before.
    2) Pupils' behavior in the experimental situation seemed to be considerably influenced by the types of the teaching pattern in the regular class-room situation.The pupils who were regularly educated under the more emancipatory teaching pattern, behaved more freely under the two types of leadership by the temporary leaders.The other pupils under the more copulsory teaching pattern, on the other hand, showed remarkably the constrictive and timid attitude, not only under the directive type of leadership, but also under, the non-directive type in the experimental situation.
    抄録全体を表示
  • 獲目 敬
    13 巻 (1965) 3 号 p. 141-145,188
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that isolates with low sociometric status would reveal more indications of anxiety than would leaders with the high sociometric status.
    A sociometric test consisting of following three criteria,‘grouping’,‘play’ and ‘study’ was administered to 626 sixth graders out of 15 classes to select the following three groups of subjects: ‘rejectees’,‘neglectees’ and ‘leaders’.The general anxiety test and the Rorschach test were then given to all the subjects.
    The findings are as follows:
    The results of the general anxiety test standardized by TAKEN revealed that both rejectees and neglectees were more anxious than leaders.There was a statistically significant difference in the tendency for loneliness between rejectees and leaders. Likewise, there were significant differences in the anxiety tendency for learning and in the total anxiety tendency between neglectees and leaders.
    The anxiety index by R. M. Eichler and one by S.B.Sarason and F.N.Cox were adopted as the anxiety indices in terms of the Rorschach test.It was shown that rejectees and neglectees were more anxious in their responses with these indices than leaders.
    The higher degree of anxiety by isolates was interpreted to show dissatisfaction of need for belongingness to the group, on the basis of the interwoven effects of their personality characteristics reflected on their responses to the Rorschach test and the environmental condition in which they were pressed and rejected by their peers.
    抄録全体を表示
  • 伊藤 恭子, 波多野 誼余夫
    13 巻 (1965) 3 号 p. 146-153,188
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Three empirical findings concerning the responses of the intermediate stage of number conservation are to be presented and discussed from the view-point of the change of dominance between perceptual and numerical-inferential cues.
    (A) Responses on conservation tasks given to Ss of our previous experimental education of number conception were examined for i) consis tency of conservation responses to various sub-items, ii) reliability of conservation responses with a2-week interval.Four out of 8 conservation sub-items given were as follows: After S recognized the equivalence of two collections, E transformed one of them into the prescribed configurations and asked S,“Now, which is more?” Other 4 sub-items concerend the invariance of the quantity of a set beforeand after transformations.
    The results showed: i) The number of elements in a set or the type of transformations had little effect on the difficulty of items, though the conservation tasks without a standard stimulus (a nontransformed collection) were the more difficult. About 80-85% of 109 5-and 6-year-old childrenmade internally consistent responses, i.e., conservation or nonconservation response to all of the4items. ii) About 70% of 50 children made 4 consistent conservation or non-conservation responses in both of the tests, administered at a two-week interval, and more than 90%, fell in the same category if the distinction was made between 4-conservationrespondents and others.
    (B) An experiment was carried out to examine the effect of suggestion or counter-suggestion upon responses at conservation tasks.i) Nine 5-yearold children, who had been non-conservers in the ordinary conservation situation, were given suggestions to use numerical rather than perceptual cues. For three of then, the mode of response changed completely and made conservation responses at the test one-week later.Further 2 of them showed a little fluctuation to suggestions but finally settled down at the non-conservation stage.The other 4 children showed no sign of change in the positive direction. ii) On the contrary, [8 5-year-old children, who had always made correct responses at number conservation tasks with a standard stimulus, were given counter-suggestions to emphasize perceptual differences generated by the transformation of one collection. Although one of them regressed to the non-coservation stage, the other 7 did not show any instabilities.
    (C) The extinction of principle of number conservation was attempted.This experiment, which copied Smedslund's procedure, was to observe children's responses to the tricky situation in which number (quantity of a collection) did not conserve with. spatial transformations.Five out of 9 5-year-old children, who had acquired conservation spontaneously, and 4 out of 7 children who had learned conservation by one of the two training curricula, resisted the attempt at extinction and often interpreted apparent non-conservation as meaning that one element was added or taken away secretly.The remaining. 7 children easily gave up the concept of conservation after 2 or 3 cheating trials and warranted nonconservation by perceptual reasons.It must be noted that 4 non-extinguished children among conservers-by-training were those who had been given the curriculum inducing number conservation by the imagination of inter-number relations, the 3 extin guised were these who had only been given repeat ed confirmation of invariance of a set by counting.
    Also discussed in detail were the implications of these empirical evidences to process or dynamics. of transition from perceptual-cue-dominance to numerical-inference-cue-dominance as well as appreciated effects of various training procedures.
    抄録全体を表示
  • 13 巻 (1965) 3 号 p. 153-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 13 巻 (1965) 3 号 p. 153a-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 北尾 倫彦
    13 巻 (1965) 3 号 p. 154-160,190
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    1 刺激語と反応語を含む文章化経験が, それらの対連合学習に対してどのような継時的効果をおよぼすかを検討するために, 2つの実験を企てた。
    2実験1では, 刺激語と反応語を含む文章を作成する条件 (作文群), 同じく両語を含む比較的短い文章を読む条件 (短文読文群), 同じく両語を含む比較的長い文章を読む条件 (長文読文群), なんらの文章化経験も受けない条件 (統制群) を設け, 後続の対連合学習の成績 (正反応数) を比較した。その結果, 作文群が最も良い成績を示し, 短文読文群と長文読文群がほぼ同じでこれにつぎ, 統制群が最も低い成績を示した。
    3実験IIでは, 文章化せずに単語の形のままで読む条件 (単語読み群) を設け, これと実験Iと同じ手続きに従う作文群, 統制群と比較した。その結果, 対連合学習の成績は作文主群が他の2群より有意に良かつたが, 単語読み群と統制群の間には有意差がなかつた。
    4実験I, 実験IIのどちらにおいても, 文章化経験が対連合学習におよぼす効果と児童の知能程度との間には交互作用がみとめられなかつた
    5以上の実験結果から, 対連合学習の刺激語と反応語を文章化することによつて, 意味的条件づけが成立し, 条件づけられた意味反応が刺激語と反応語の連合を媒介することが考察された。そして, 文章化が児童自身の活動としてなされる方がより効果的であつたことは, 児童の興味・関心や言語習慣・思考様式などの面から解釈された。
    抄録全体を表示
  • 五十嵐 斎一
    13 巻 (1965) 3 号 p. 161-165,191
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    医学領域でなされた高等学校生徒を対象にした鼻性注意散漫症 (aprosexia nasalis) の有無による知能の研究結果では, 鼻性注意散漫症を有する罹患児群の知能は低劣であつたと報告されている。このことから慢性副鼻腔炎罹患者の知能低劣の事実は当該疾患自体のみによるというよりは, むしろ鼻性注意散漫症に関係するのではないかとの見解もみられている。
    筆者は児童健康診断票に記載されている事実にもとついて, 松本市内の小学校4, 5, 6年児童から調査対象児を選出した。調査年度をふくんで連続2か年度あるいはそれ以上の年度にまたがつて, 未処置の虫歯は別として,(1) 当該疾患以外に, 他の疾患あるいは障害のない者を罹患児とした。該当児は44名 (男23名, 女21名) 。 (2) なんらの疾患あるいは障害のない者を健康対照児とした。該当児として77名 (男39名, 女38名) をとつた。
    さらに, 罹患児を鼻性注意散漫症を有する者の群と, そうでない者の群とにわけた。他方, 健康対照児を, 鼻性注意散漫症に類似の状態をもつ者の群と, そうでない者の群とにわけた。そして, かれらの知能検査成績 (知能偏差値) について平均値と知能評価段階ごとの人数比との2つの観点から全体的 (男+女) に検討した。知能検査成績は新制田中B式知能検査第2形式によつて測定した。結果は次のようにまとめられる。筆者がとつた方法のもとでは
    1知能検査成績において鼻性注意散漫症を有する罹患群の方が低劣であるということは認められなかつた。
    2鼻性注意散漫症が知能検査成績に望ましくない影響をもたらすものでないことが示唆された。
    抄録全体を表示
  • 柳井 晴夫
    13 巻 (1965) 3 号 p. 166-174,192
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    (1) 高校2, 3年生の20の専門分野に対する志望興味の程度の評定点にもとついて因子分析を行ない, この結果から16の専門分野を理科群, 文科群に分類した。これらの (専門分野に対する評定点を学年別に因子分析し, 理科文科志望得点からS得点を定義した。
    (2) 高校2, 3年生の大学専門分野に対する興味にもとづく選択基準は科学技術に対する興味と言語文学的興味すなわち, いわゆる理科的興味と文科的興味によつて説明される。この興味の分化は高校1年の時期にほぼ成立しているが, まだ固定していない。高2, 3年の間に急激に分化する。
    (3) しかし, 個々の専門分野に対する興味の分化はあまり進んでいない。したがつて, 興味の点からみると, 入学時に特定の専門分野を選択させることは無理がある。
    (4) 因子分析の結果得られた第3因子は, 理論系と実用系の基準にあたるが, 理論系の専門分野とみられる数学物理などは1年生では他の理科系の分野と変らないが, 2, 3年生では, 文科因子が減少する。それは, これらの分野の志望者が理論への興味とともに, 能力をもつ者だけに限定されてくるからであると考えられる。
    その反面, 工学部系の専門分野に文科因子が増加するが, これは, 実用的興味という点で法律・経済などの専門分野に共通する面をもつためであろう。
    (5) S得点から判断すると, 高学年になるに従つて, 理科系専門分野に対する興味は減じ, 文科系専門分野に対する興味が増大する。また理科系志望は早期にき.まる傾向がみられる。
    抄録全体を表示
  • 小川 再治
    13 巻 (1965) 3 号 p. 175-179
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 13 巻 (1965) 3 号 p. 179-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 13 巻 (1965) 3 号 p. 187
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    • |<
    • <
    • 1
    • >
    • >|
feedback
Top