The present study was designed to investigate what kind of characteristic teaching pattern was shown by some teachers of special classes for the mentally re tarded, not at the ideational level, but at the more used the rating method dy means of the direct observation by our research members, which we called “observation- rating method”. After we observed directly hese teaching processes shown in the daily classroom situations of the ten classes for the mentally retarded in the ten secondary schools, each one of our members rated each teacher - pupil relationship, each atmosphere in the classroom and each personality characteristics of the teacher, on the seven point scale. As a result, we could find two kinds of the specific characteristic patterns by using the Q-technique of the factor analysis. The first type of teaching patterrn was characterized by the empathic and intimate relationship between teacher and pupil, and on the othei hand, the second type showed somewhat authoritative attitude from teachers side, and then the quiet and/ or rigid atmosphere was observed in this type. We could thus differentiate the above two types of different characteristic teaching patterns in the level of practical teaching situation in the special classes for the mentally retarded. However many other problems must be considered, for instance, the re-examinat; on of the rating items and the training of the rater himself, etc. Therefore we are going to continue our research on these lines because we believe that education for the mentally retarded is strongly influenced by such kinds of concrete teaching patterns.
The purpose of this report is 1) to make clear the weak points of Japanese in hearing and in pronouncing English, and 2) to show a teaching method of English, poposed by 0. Saheki, to overcome these weak points. Subjects (Table 1): first, second and third year pupils of Junior High School A, of the average intelligence level of pupils in Kyoto City, taught throughout the current academic year by a single member of the staffs of the same school: first year pupils of Junior High School B, also of average in telligence, taught by 0. Saheki for one year; first, second and third year Saheki English School pupils: and freshmen of College D and E. Procedures. 1. Aural Recognition of English Phonemes. The Subjects were asked to listen to and write down 1) familiar English words spoken by a Japanese, 2) by an American, and 3) unfamiliar ones by the Japanese (Table 2, 3, 4), 2. Pronunciation of English Phonemes. The subjects were asked to pronounce English words (Table 5). The tests were given at the middle of the current academic year to Junior High School pupils and at the beginning of the year to College Students. After the tests the E College freshmen were taught by O. Saheki and were tested again. The number of the subjects who answered correctly were compared between groups by X2-test (Table 2, 4, 5). Results. 1. Aural Recognition of English Phonemes. Most of the subjects, except those taught by O. Saheki, could not recognize English phonemes (Table 2, 3). It is considered that the subjects heard them in the framework of the Japanese phoneme system. Out of the School A, the younger were the more successful in recognizing them. The longer the subjects had been taught by a traditional teaching method (teaching translation and grammatical analysis of written English without practice in hearing or pronunciation), the more rigid their framework of Japanese phoneme system became. The results of aural tests pronounced by a Japanese and by an American were almost the same (Table 3). As for the subjects of School A, not all who recognized phonemes in familiar words could hear and spell syllables of words which they had not learned, though most of the Saheki School subjects could (Table 4). 2. Pronunciation of English Phonemes. The results of the pronunciation were almost the same as those of the aural recognition. Most of the subjects, except those taught by 0. Saheki, pronounced English phonemes in the framework of the Japanes phoneme system. The following teaching process of hearing and pronouncing English phonemes was proporsed by O.Saheki (Fig. 1). At first introduction is given in the difference between the Japanese and English phoneme systems to pupils using some fundamental and varied English phoneme pairs and corresponding Japanese phonemes, e. g. /1/ : /r/ [r] and Japanese /r [i] in initial position of words, /s/ [s]: /s/ (s) and Japanese/s/ [G] etc., not only in hearing but also in pronouncing. The more differentiated the subjects' English phoneme system becomes, the more English phoneme pairs are introduced. And there is a systematic comparison of the differencebetween Japanese and English. The subjects are also trained to comprehend the relation between articulation and spelling of English words' syllables. Most of the subjects, not only the Saheki School pupils but also School B pupils and even College E students, had established a differentiated English phonemes system both in hearing and pronouncing by the end of a course of one year with lessons with O. Saheki.