教育心理学研究
Online ISSN : 2186-3075
Print ISSN : 0021-5015
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15 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
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  • 三浦 香苗
    15 巻 (1967) 2 号 p. 65-74,124
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    いくつかの次元 (属性) を持った事例をいくつかの結合的カテゴリーに分ける分類基準を被験者がいくつ挙げることができるか, また, その列挙に変化次元数・値の数・関与次元数・不適切次元の有無・事例数・知覚的援助の程度がいかに影響するかを調べ, それにより分類行動の発達を考える。
    実験はIとIIが行なわれ, どちらも個々面接法で, 各学年15~20名に行なわれた。
    実験1は, 小学1年生・3年生・5年生・中学1年生に, 形・高さ・色・傾きの4次元, および, 形・高さ・色の3次元がそれぞれ2値をもつ積木を, 2組・4組・8組に分ける課題を行なわせた。
    実験IIIでは, 小学3年生・5年生.中学1年生・3年生の被験者に, 1枚のカードに5個の図形, そのおのおのが2色の一方である, を並列的に並べたもの32枚を, 2組・4組・8組に分類させた。
    この2実験より明らかにされた点は,
    1.1つの次元を関与次元とする2分の分類基準を列挙することは, 小学1年生と3年生の間に有意な差があった。
    2.関与次元数が2の4分は, 小学1年生と3年生, 3年生と5年生の間に有意差をもつ。
    3.関与次元数3の8分は, 小学3年生と5年生, 5年生と中学1年生の間で有意差があった。
    また, 変化次元数よりも, 関与次元数の方が, 分類のむずかしさに影響するらしいことも示唆された
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  • 村上 英治, 荻野 梶, 冨安 芳和, 久留 一郎, 秦安 雄, 江見 佳俊, 岩井 文子
    15 巻 (1967) 2 号 p. 75-84,124
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study was designed to investigate what kind of characteristic teaching pattern was shown by some teachers of special classes for the mentally re tarded, not at the ideational level, but at the more used the rating method dy means of the direct observation by our research members, which we called “observation- rating method”.
    After we observed directly hese teaching processes shown in the daily classroom situations of the ten classes for the mentally retarded in the ten secondary schools, each one of our members rated each teacher - pupil relationship, each atmosphere in the classroom and each personality characteristics of the teacher, on the seven point scale.
    As a result, we could find two kinds of the specific characteristic patterns by using the Q-technique of the factor analysis. The first type of teaching patterrn was characterized by the empathic and intimate relationship between teacher and pupil, and on the othei hand, the second type showed somewhat authoritative attitude from teachers side, and then the quiet and/ or rigid atmosphere was observed in this type.
    We could thus differentiate the above two types of different characteristic teaching patterns in the level of practical teaching situation in the special classes for the mentally retarded. However many other problems must be considered, for instance, the re-examinat; on of the rating items and the training of the rater himself, etc. Therefore we are going to continue our research on these lines because we believe that education for the mentally retarded is strongly influenced by such kinds of concrete teaching patterns.
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  • 宮本 美沙子, 田部 洋子, 吉田 薩子, 東 洋
    15 巻 (1967) 2 号 p. 85-91,125
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    この研究は, 児童の生命認識の発達過程と手がかりとの関係を究明することを目的としたものである。4~8才児52名を対象に, 面接法によって, 7つの刺激物につき, その生命の有無と, さらに生命有無の手がかりとなる9種の属性や行動特性をたずねた。
    その結果, 年少児では知覚されやすい手がかりによって生命有無を判断する傾向があり, 7・8才になると, 正しい手がかりが強化されて, 生命とその手がかりとの関係が確立されてくることが見出された。従来は, 動くとか活動するという手がかりがアニミズム説の中心になっていたが, 児童は生命有無の手がかりとして, もっと多くの属性や行動特性を観察していることも明らかにされた
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  • 清水 利信
    15 巻 (1967) 2 号 p. 92-102,126
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    学力に関係する数多くの要因の影響を, 学力が形成される場である学校を研究単位として, 因子分析的に研究することを目的とした。
    地域・規模・進学率を異にする神奈川県下の15の公立中学校長による, 自校の現状についてのQ分類の因子分析の結果, 3つの学校群が区別された。これは元型において地域と進学率の2軸のまわりに位置づけられるものであり, 地域性と学習指導方法との間に, ある関係の存在することが明らかになった。
    中学校長と教育関係者による, 学力向上のための条件についてのQ分析の結果は, 2つの因子を抽出した。この2つの因子は学習指導の方法に関して対立的な内容をもつものである。
    学校の現状と学力向上条件との関連をみるために, 学力要因の充実度係数を算出して, さきの学校群間で比較すると, 生徒, 父兄, 地域, 指導法の要因間で差の大きいことが見出された。
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  • 中島 誠, 佐伯 治
    15 巻 (1967) 2 号 p. 103-118,128
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this report is 1) to make clear the weak points of Japanese in hearing and in pronouncing English, and 2) to show a teaching method of English, poposed by 0. Saheki, to overcome these weak points.
    Subjects (Table 1): first, second and third year pupils of Junior High School A, of the average intelligence level of pupils in Kyoto City, taught throughout the current academic year by a single member of the staffs of the same school: first year pupils of Junior High School B, also of average in telligence, taught by 0. Saheki for one year; first, second and third year Saheki English School pupils: and freshmen of College D and E.
    Procedures. 1. Aural Recognition of English Phonemes. The Subjects were asked to listen to and write down 1) familiar English words spoken by a Japanese, 2) by an American, and 3) unfamiliar ones by the Japanese (Table 2, 3, 4),
    2. Pronunciation of English Phonemes. The subjects were asked to pronounce English words (Table 5). The tests were given at the middle of the current academic year to Junior High School pupils and at the beginning of the year to College Students. After the tests the E College freshmen were taught by O. Saheki and were tested again. The number of the subjects who answered correctly were compared between groups by X2-test (Table 2, 4, 5). Results. 1. Aural Recognition of English Phonemes. Most of the subjects, except those taught by O. Saheki, could not recognize English phonemes (Table 2, 3). It is considered that the subjects heard them in the framework of the Japanese phoneme system. Out of the School A, the younger were the more successful in recognizing them. The longer the subjects had been taught by a traditional teaching method (teaching translation and grammatical analysis of written English without practice in hearing or pronunciation), the more rigid their framework of Japanese phoneme system became. The results of aural tests pronounced by a Japanese and by an American were almost the same (Table 3). As for the subjects of School A, not all who recognized phonemes in familiar words could hear and spell syllables of words which they had not learned, though most of the Saheki School subjects could (Table 4).
    2. Pronunciation of English Phonemes. The results of the pronunciation were almost the same as those of the aural recognition. Most of the subjects, except those taught by 0. Saheki, pronounced English phonemes in the framework of the Japanes phoneme system. The following teaching process of hearing and pronouncing English phonemes was proporsed by O.Saheki (Fig. 1). At first introduction is given in the difference between the Japanese and English phoneme systems to pupils using some fundamental and varied English phoneme pairs and corresponding Japanese phonemes, e. g. /1/ [1]: /r/ [r] and Japanese /r [i] in initial position of words, /s/ [s]: /s/ (s) and Japanese/s/ [G] etc., not only in hearing but also in pronouncing. The more differentiated the subjects' English phoneme system becomes, the more English phoneme pairs are introduced. And there is a systematic comparison of the differencebetween Japanese and English. The subjects are also trained to comprehend the relation between articulation and spelling of English words' syllables.
    Most of the subjects, not only the Saheki School pupils but also School B pupils and even College E students, had established a differentiated English phonemes system both in hearing and pronouncing by the end of a course of one year with lessons with O. Saheki.
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  • 15 巻 (1967) 2 号 p. 124
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
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