教育心理学研究
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15 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
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  • 柏木 恵子
    15 巻 (1967) 4 号 p. 193-202,253
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    パースナリティーの発達, ないし社会的適応のひとつの重要な側面である性役割学習過程が, 男・女の性に対してそれぞれどのような役割特性を認知しているかの面から問題とされた。ことにとれが自我に目覚めて外的権威に反発する時期を経て社会的人間へと転じてゆく青年期にどのような変化をたどるか, また自身の性によって認知のしかたにどんな相違があるかが検討された。
    性役割特性を示す形容詞群から成る質問紙を用い, 男・女両性についてそれぞれの特性がどの程度望ましいかの比較・評定を求めた。そこから男.女両役割得点および両得点差が求められ, 男女をどのような差で役割分化させているかが検討された。
    その結果, 次の諸点が指摘された。
    (1) 全34項目中10項目については, 全被験者群によって同様な結果が得られ, 被験者の性・年令の差を問わず認知のしかたにある共通する面の存在することが示された。
    (2) 一方, 他のいずれの群とも共通性をもたず特定の1群だけが性役割の分化にあたって有効とする特徴的な点もいくつかみられた。
    (3) 一般に, 男性に対しては役割特性が明瞭であり, 多くの特性が付与されている。これに比べて女性役割特性はより少なく, ことに年少段階では明瞭に認知されがたい傾向がある。
    (4) 被験者の性によって, 中学生から大学生にいたる問の年令による変動のしかたには相違がみられた。すなわち,
    (a) 男子では, 男・女両役割の分化の程度に著しい年令差があり, 年少段階ではわずかな特性でしか性役割は区別されておらず未分化である。年長になるにつれて男・女役両割はこまかく明瞭な差をもって分化してゆく。
    (b) 女子では, 男・女両役割を識別するのに有効な項目特性数に関しては年令差はみられない。しかし内容的にみると, 何が基準となって識別されているか, 女性役割特
    性が明瞭に積極的に捉えられているか, などの点で, 年長段階と年少段階との問には相違がある。
    (5) 低年令段階では男子と女子との間に認知のしかたに差があるが, 年長段階になると性差は小さくなり, 男・女群間の相違は小さくなる傾向がみとめられた。
    (6) 男・女両役割得点差と評定の絶対値との関係から各群の特徴が吟味され, 今後とるべきいくつかの分析方向が示唆された。
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  • 中邑 幾太, 中邑 平八郎
    15 巻 (1967) 4 号 p. 203-209,253
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Probhems and aims.: Generally speaking, there are two aspects in the jud gement of items of a social attitude scale.The one (S) is that in which the items are judged in terms of agreements with the statements of the attitude scale, and the other (S´) is that in which they are judged in terms of oppositions to the statements.When examined statistically, S-S'has a significant difference which was d emonstrated byour previous researches.And then, why is the difference significant will be able to point out, as one of the chief reasons, that the mechanism in the judgement of S is different from that of S.Precisely, attitudes are always related to definite stimuli or stimulus situations.(subject-object relationship).The concept of attitudes are often de noted in termsof its objects, but the content of an attitude is decided by the property of the subjecto bject relationship which has established at that time, and which has fulfilled the important role as a parameter. Therefore, in order to explain the bi-polarity of social attitude, we will adopt the mechanism of value and the mechanism of radicalism-conservatism, as examples of subject-object relationship, and examine them experimentally. Procedure of experiment.: We must, for the first time, construct attitude scales, each statement of which is emphasizing only one of the values, or raidicalism, or conservatism.
    (1) We have established, for the first time, attitude scale toward “Labor” by the method of equal- appearing intervals, which consisted of80statements, and the value type of each statement was decided and classified by students'objective ratings into six types: theoretical, social, aesthetic, religious, economical, and political.If we research statistically the frequencies of the value type of each statement toward which the responses of “pro” or “anti” were made, we will be able to decide whetherthe responses are made through homogeneous value-mechanism or through heterogeneous valuemechanism. When the value-type of each statement toward which the bi-polaric responses are made, are not the same but different, we will be able to consider that an individual made responses through heterogeneous value-mechanism.From such a viewpoint as this, we have asked285students to make such bi-polaric responses only one time for one scale.
    (2) We have made a social attitude scale which consisted of14radical and8conservative statements out of Eysenck's inventory.We presented it to the same students, asking them to make bi-polaric responses only one time for one scale.The procedure of this experiment is the same as that in the case of value-mechanism described above.
    Results.: (1) When one make his bi-polaric responsestoward the items of an attitude scale, which were certified for emphasizing one of six types of value, or radicalism or conservatism, he is used to make his responses, very often, through heterogeneous mechanism, and very few, through homogeneous mechanism.
    (2) When one makes his bi-polaric responses toward each item of an attitude scale, there is a significant difference between one pole (S) and the other (S´).Why is the difference significant.We will be able to point out the above conclusion (1) as one of its chief reasons.That is to say, it is because the mechanism in the judgement of S is differ statistically from that of S´.
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  • 村上 英治, 荻野 星, 江見 佳俊, 秦 安雄, 冨安 芳和
    15 巻 (1967) 4 号 p. 210-225,254
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Purpose: This report intends: 1) to clarify degrees of the post-school adjustment of the men-tally retarded in work in relation to the employers'attitudes toward them, and2) to evaluate two teachers'teaching patterns in the special classes for the mentally retarded as an important factor to produce satisfactory post-school adjustment and furthermore to appraise the entire problem so that a fundamental evaluation of the special education system may be brought about.
    Subjects and Procedure: For this study we have selected18cases who graduated in two classes for the mentally retarded and are at present in work in an emotionally stable condition.Following these cases we have done an intensive case study mainly by the interviewing technique.The employers, teachers, parents and, when possible, subjects themselves were interviewed.
    Results: 1) Degrees of inner adjustment of the18cases are classified into three levels (high→ low) on the one hand, and on the other hand four characteristic types of employers'attitudes toward these cases are pointed out.Cross-tabulating these two factors, we have found that those cases who show highly satisfactory post-school adjustment are working under employers with active and warm hospitality, and with employee-centered orientation rather than management-centered orientation. 2) We have followed up the teachers'teaching patte rns which might influenc ethe inner adjustment of these subjects, and have been ableto confirm that their teaching patterns are main factors to decide the degrees of post-school adjustment.
    As long as the final goal of our series of study is directed to establishing ideal patterns of teaching in the special classes for the mentally retarded, we believe these ideal patterns will be highly important in view of a desirable growth and self-support of the mentally retarded.
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  • 久原 恵子, 波多野 誼余夫
    15 巻 (1967) 4 号 p. 226-235,255
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study aimed at investigating developmental changes in cognitive strategy for concept learning.Ss were required to identity the criteria of concepts and to classify a set of stimuli, utilizing information transmitted by positive or negative instances.
    A modified and objectively defined procedure of Vygotsky-type concept formation experiment was undertaken. Variable dimensions of 22 stimuli were size (2values), form (6), color (5) and the presence of a frame (2).These22stimuli could be classified into 4 categories according to their values on relevant dimension, size and frame.
    Ninty-five Ss, who were5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-15, 20-above-years-old, participated in the experiment. Their cognitive strategy, i.e., the mode of information seeking and utilization was diagnosed on the basis of structural aspects of1st and 2nd classification and the level of verbalization of concept intentions. As results, 3 developmental stages were identified. Various behavioral indices of Ss which belonged to each stage were compared in detail.
    Ss who belonged to the Stage I, who were mostly kindergarten children, could not classify a set of stimuli according to any discernible principle. They seemed not to comprehend the presence of a criterion. They could neither utilize information brought about by new “samples”, nor verbalize the concept intention even after all of the stimuli were placed into relevant categories.
    Ss who belonged to Stage II, mainly2-8graders, could identify the concept intention inductively and apply it to other stimuli.Sometimes, their first few calssifications had no discernible criterion, but they could discover and verbalize relevant dimensions after a few instances were presented. Suggestion for drawing their attention to relevent dimensions were effective in facilitating their performance.
    Ss at Stage III (above the6-graders) classified stimuli according to their hypothetical, deductivelyintroduced criterion from the start.When they were informed their former classification was not adaptive, they tried another hypothesis until relevant categories were identified.
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  • 永沢 幸七
    15 巻 (1967) 4 号 p. 236-247,235
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    英文だけを呈示した群と, 英和を並列して同時呈示した群を, 学習効果の観点から検討すると次の2点において比較できる。
    (1) 試行数においてはFries文型, Hornby文型のどちらにおいても有意差がみられた。すなわち10回呈示が5回呈示よりも有意な学習効果をあらわしている。
    (2) 呈示法についてはHornby文型の場合, 10試行においては英群と英和群に有意な差はみられなかった。5試行においては英群, 英和群に有意差はないが平均点において男女とも英和群が英群より優れた効果をみせている。Fries文型の場合, 10試行群においては統計的には英群, 英和群の両群の間に有意差はみられなかった。平均点において男女合計の場合は英群がよい結果をみせている。なお性差については女子が男子よりも英群においてまさっている。英群のような教授法の観点では, この年令の女子には男子よりも, よい成果をあげるものといえよう。
    (3) 困難度水準によって正答率がどう違ってくるかということを高校生の場合でみると, Fries文型においては10秒5試行の場合は, 困難度水準低, 中, 高における (F),(8) 文型で英和群がよい成績を示している。Hornby文型においては10秒10試行において困難度水準中の (10) 文型の場合英群がすぐれているが, 有意水準10%で統計的には積極的には有意とはいいがたい。有意差のみられたのは困難度高の (F) 文型のみである。困難度水準が比較的高い場合は, 試行数には無関係に英和群が英群よりも, よい成績を示すことが認められた。困難度水準高のところにおいては, 3問題とも0.1%水準にて英和群に有意差がみられた。これは回数の少ないほど英和群に有意差がみられたということもできよう。試行回数が多くなるとその差が多少縮少するということもいえよう。
    (4) 誤りの傾向としては, 日本語的語順からくる誘引, 視覚的要因の錯誤, 複雑より簡略化の要因, 使いなれた文型に接近しようとする傾向などの諸要因が認められた。これらの誤りの傾向を防止することにより, より指導効果をあげることができると信ずる。
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  • 15 巻 (1967) 4 号 p. 258
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
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