The present study aimed at investigating motivational influences on epistemic observation of a physical phenomenon. Two experiments, which followed Pre-test-Instruction-Post-test paradigm, were undertaken. Ss of 2 experimental groups were motivated for observation by receiving information discrepant with their prior beliefs. One hundred and twenty-five 3rd-graders served as Ss of the 1st experiment. In the Instruction session, they observed and confirmed by a scale conservation of weight under deformations of a clay ball, and under changes of man's posture. Immediately before the observation, pupils of a group termed “Discrepant Information Group” (DI) were shown a table of response frequencies about conservation by an experimenter. Distribution of responses, which were pretended to be opinions of pupils of another, was markedly differnt from theirs, Ss of a “Discussion Group” (D) were required to anticipate conservation or non-conservation and to debate on the question. Control Group (C) Ss were given neither of these experimental manipulations. The results were as follows: 1) Ss who observed the event after incongruity was aroused (as in DI) could recognize the event more accurately and could more readily generalize the principles of conservation. 2) If Ss were strongly committed to a certain belief (as in D), they often conceptualized ambiguous results in a biased manner, making them consistent with the belief. As to generality of learning, however, performance of D Ss did not differ significantly from that of C Ss. This result was an unexpected one. Its interpretation was that there was low incongruity in D, because proponents of conservation were highly predominant at the discussion. In order to verify the interpretation mentioned above, the 2nd experiment was undertaken. Eighty-seven 4th-graders observed and confirmed by a scale conservation of weight under dissolution of sugar into water. One school class was assigned to C. Two groups of 22 pupils, of whom 2/3 were non-conservers, were selected from 2 other classes and served as D. They were expected to experience high incongruity during the discussion. The results showed that, compared with C, improvement of performance was greater among D. They could state adequate explanations of conservation of weight, generalize more readily the principles of conservation, and resist extinction (the observation of an apparently non-conserving event). Furthermore, Ss of D reported high epistemic curiosity.
One of the purposes of this paper is to apply the theory of the failure distribution of system reliability (e. g., cf. Barlow et al; 1967) to the analysis of the frequency distribution of test scores. Assuming that test scores, x s, correlate positively with a underlying ability, we define as follows: (1) where _??_ And further we define (2) which is called the ratio of success. From (2) we get (3)(Davis; 1952, McGill et al; 1965). Another one of the purposes is to recommend for the use of “Weibull” (1952) distribution in order to analyze the frequency distribution of test scores. The distribution has often been used in the studies of system reliability because of its wide applicability. We define the ratio of success of this distribution as follows: (12) then,(10) are obtained. Here, m, α, and γ are shape, scale, and location parameters. Tha shape parameter m of Weibull distribution plays an important role in discriminating the degree of the difficulties and validities of psychological tests. We investigate several data by Lord (1952) and it is shown that the shape parameter m is a suprisingly useful and powerful measure in psychological testing (cf. Fig. 1). Finally, it should be noted the following. That is, our proposal which is based upon a differential. equation model is comparable to Lord's (1952) integral equation model in that the former aims to analyze directly the frequency distribution of test scores and the latter to estimate true-score or latent trait distribution.
This study is an attempt to test and examine hypothesis 1 (a),(b) and 3 in the experimental hypotheses by G. T. Barrett-Lennard. By their hypothesis 1 (a), the relationship variables as measured after interviews at initiation of therapy, were assumed to be positively correlated with the therapeutic change during the period of therapy. Moreover, these associations were predicted to be stronger when the relationship qualities were measured from client perceptions than when they were measured from therapist perceptions. However converse results have come out in this research. The hypothesis 1 (b) predicted that the relationship as measured from client or therapist perceptions at termination of therapy would also be positively associated with change. For this hypothesis this researcher has found that correlation at termination of therapy was stronger in the case of therapist perceptions than in client perceptions. So far as their hypothesis 3 is concerned, the same outcome has been produced: that is, combined relationship perception total scores of the two participants (clients and therapists) were more associated with therapeutic change than scores of either one of them (the clients or therapists). The fact that could be stated in common after examinations of these three hypotheses in this correlation between the variable of empathic understanding and the therapeutic improvement were greatest. From these investigations, the next questions will be presented: 1) The generalization of client perceptions 2) The limitation of perceived relationship inventory (1) In the procedure of the generalization of client perceptions by Barrett-Lennard, the response of the differential therapists related to the identical clients would be responsible for the different perceptions of the clients and, hence, for differences in therapy outcome. In this paper, for identical therapist attitude related to different clients, they express different responses. This difference would come out as the variable of empathic understanding in therapist perceptions. (2) Variables of “self-congruence” and “unconditionality of regard” in therapist perceptions secure the stability of attitude necessary for therapists in spite of therapeutic change. On the other hand, client perceptions are not responses for the three variables (congruence, empathy, and unconditionality) but these are understandable as reflection upon the inner state with dependency, hostility, disturbancy.