In this experiment, I Would observe how preschool children will give a solution when they are given subjects in which they have interest. After that, I would characterize logical constructs of thinking in pre-school children. As a different view point from general researches on logical thinking, I would observe how pre-school children really think logically before they consciously operate and adjust already existing systems and axioms of logic. Experiments Subjects: 60 children in kindegrarten (six years old). Materials: 16 colored pictures of animals on white cards (4cm-4cm). These animals are as follows, fishes: a goldfish, ared tai and a loach. birds: a japanese crane, a sparrow, an owl, a duck and a cock. insects: a butterfly, a cicada and a dragonfly. beasts: a monkey, a goat, a rat, a rabbit and a dog. Picture-book is “a living thing” A book of science (2) by Kazuo Mafune. Doshinsha (in Japanese) 1968. This book shows (1) how animals move, and (2) names of parts in animals. For instance, p.2 pictures of a lion, a cat and a dog.“Beasts walk by legs” p.10 picture of a cow.“A beast has a head, a trunk and 4 legs. The body is covered with hairs” Experiment I A. Teaching group. Subjects 30. First, subjects are taught on distinctive features among “fish”,“bird”,“insect” and “beast” in picture- book. First trial subjects must name 16 animals on cards. If they make mistakes, experimenter teaches them correct names. After that subjects classify 16 cards as they consider them to belong to one group or another. When subjects finished classifications, experimenter asked reasons why they classified as they did. For subjects who classified correctly, experiment is stopped. Other subjects must advance to another trial. Second trial: experimenter instructs subjects to classify these 16 cards into “fishes”,“birds”,“insects”, and “beasts”. When they finished, experimenter asked reasons why they classified as they did. ExperimentIIB. Non-teaching group. Subjects 30. Experimenter gave subjects no instructions on these animals. First and second trials are as in first experiment. Results (1) Correct classification on scientific thinking was greater in A group than in B. Though subjects of B group classified correctly, their reasons are based on experience. (2) I would set up some stages of logical thinking which appeared in this experiment.(Table 1)
It was found that the retarded children we had trained were divided into two groups. The first group (C-Group) members were the children whose emotional condition were stable all the time, whose vitality was substantial and who had a bright and happy life, while the second group (U-Group) members were the children whose personality growth was disturbed by their enervation, inferiority complex and anxiety. The purpose of the present paper was to certify the factors involved in different personality formation in the mentally retarded children. The subjects we selected were forty educable retarded children and were divided into C-Group and U-Group through their teachers' observations in the educational situations. Each child's mother was asked to indicate her expectancy on her child's future and her “way to live” or her “view on life”. The teachers were asked their views on “retarded development of mentality” in children and their educational viewpoints on retarded children. And the process of the human relationship between each child belonging to two Groups and his teachers was analyzed through the “Educational Relationship Scale” presented in Table 1. The main results were as follows. First, differences in the mothers' educational expectancy in the two Group's children were not found. Second, the differences of each mother's way to live, or her “view on life” were described clearly. That is, the mothers whose children were divided into the C-Group were very conscious of a desire for “selfsubstantial life” through sympathizing with another persons. On the contrary, the mothers whose child belonged to U-Group were ready to keep themselves shut up in an untroubled life. It was suggested, therefore, that the self-substantial life, or bright and happy life of the retarded child of C-Group was formed by his mother's sympathizing life with other persons. Third, it was confirmed that the teacher had a constant orientation to direct the more positive relationship to C-Group members, and yet encourage them to take a friendly attitude in the relationship, while he took small interest in U-Group children and was apt to stop making an effort to keep a warm sympathy with them when he could not observe their personality growth. The outcome was that the retarded children could grow up to be fine young men when they had been brought up by mothers who had a conciliatory attitude to other persons and who desired a “selfsubstantial life”, and when, furthermore, they were educated by a teacher who had been concerned about his pupils' possibilities and kept a warm and friendly relationship with them constantly.