教育心理学研究
Online ISSN : 2186-3075
Print ISSN : 0021-5015
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19 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の7件中1~7を表示しています
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  • 稲垣 佳世子, 波多野 誼余夫
    19 巻 (1971) 1 号 p. 1-12
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study aimed at revealing the effect of antecedent cognitive incongruity on information reception and curiosity. The experimental design was modified from the previous one (Inagaki, 1970) in order to lead Ss to attend to the proper aspects of incongruity. Individual differences in achieving the correct concept under different types of motivating operations were also examined. Ninety-nine 6th graders served as Ss. Learning material was classification of animals, using that of monkeys and apes as an example. Three unfamiliar monkeys were presented as positive infirming instances and 3 familiar monkeys as positive confirming instances. The experiment consisted of two sessions: Pre-instruction test was given in the first session and immediate pre-test, Information 1, 2, 3, and Post-instruction test were administered in the second session. Information 1 described characteristics of 3 unfamiliar monkeys to experimental Ss and of 3 familiar monkeys to control Ss. Information 2 and 3 were constructed similarly to the previous experiment and were expected, respectively, to have latent and manifest incongruity-reducing character for the experimental Ss. After the presentation of each Information, Ss were questioned as to their cognitive curiosity. Immediate pre-test was given prior to presentation of Information 1 and was repeated after the presentation. This test consisted of items concerning classification criteria of monkeys. Not only could Ss' response tendency to adopt correct criteria (characteristic of structure and function of body formed by consequence of evolution) be revealed, but Ss' attention to the criteria of monkey classification could be focused on. Ss were also required to assess their certainty of their answers in this test. Furthermore they were encouraged to ask questions in a semi-forced situation after Information 2. The results were as follows: i) Information presented after cognitive incongruity had been aroused was received as having an epistemic character. Ss of the experimental group, who had experienced incongruity, showed better results (more correct respondents in number) in the item which required Ss to choose criteria of classification of monkeys and animals-in general (See Table 7, 9). They could apply and relate the general principle of classifying monkeys, which was presented in Information 3, to the specific instance of a monkey (Table 8). ii) Incongruity-arousing information (Information 1 to the experimental group) produced stronger cognitive curiosity than Information 1 to the control group (Table 1). There wan no statistically significant difference in curiosity aroused by incongruity- reducing informations (Informations 2 and 3), while the experimental group Ss showed a little stronger curiosity (Table 2). iii) There was no difference between groups concerning the number of questions asked in the semi-forced situations (Table 4). iv) When correlation coefficients were calculated between pre-experimental cognitive and noncognitive variables, post-exposure performance items, and cognitive uncertainty and curiosity generated by each Information under each condition, there were found two groups of items which were highly correlated to each other in both conditions. One group included intellectual readiness and performance items. The other included items concerning pre-experimental curiosity, uncertainty of one's response and curiosity to incongruity- reducing informations (Table 10).
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  • 井上 正明
    19 巻 (1971) 1 号 p. 13-26
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    (1) Osgood, C. E. の第2言語学習に関する仮設的なモデルcompound
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  • 利島 保, 福永 喜美子
    19 巻 (1971) 1 号 p. 27-36
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究は, 学習プロセスの発達的変化をみることにより, 学習において被験者が用いる認知操作間の関係を明らかにすることが目的である。そして3つの仮設を立て, これらを中心に検討した。被験者は, 幼児, 小学2, 5, 6年生, 大学生, 総計 115名であり, 学習課題は, 水平に並んだ6つの箱から白, 黄, オレンジ, 赤, 青, 緑の色光が, 2種の位置系列で出されるのを記憶することである。その結果, 年齢とともに試行数, 誤反応率は減少し, 統計的にも有意であった, また, 学習曲線や系列位置曲線にも年齢的な特徴がみられた。チェックリストによって, 学習者が用いた記憶方法や, 認知スタイルの分析もなされた, 低年齢群では, 知覚的認知操作が用いられ, 系列の要素に固執あるいは注目したり, 要素間の関係に注意したりする傾向が多くみられた, 高年齢群では, 概念象徴的な認知操作や記憶方法がとられていて, 刺激系列全体を構造化し学習する傾向が強くみられた。以上のことから, 仮設1, 2, 3は支持された。本研究にあたり, 多大の御指導をいただいた, 広島大学, 古浦一郎教授に深く感謝の意を表します。
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  • 肥田野 直, 柳井 晴夫, 塗師 斌, 繁桝 算男, 高根 芳雄
    19 巻 (1971) 1 号 p. 37-51
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    (1) 興味検査と性格検査の尺度構成を, グループ主軸法の適用, 検査における反応歪曲の是正, 項目に対する信頼性係数の情報の適用という3つの新しい観点をふまえて行なった。
    (2)興味検査においては, グループ主軸法適用の効果があまり大きくなかったが, 最終的に得られた18尺度において, 主因子で説明される分散の割合が70%を下まわるものはなく, 相対的にかなり等質性の高い尺度が得られたものといえる.
    (3)性格検査においては, グループ主軸法適用の効果が大きかったが, 最終的に得られた10尺度において, 主因子で説明される分散の割合が75%を上まわるものがなく, 必ずしも等質性の高い尺度が得られたとはいえない。しかし, 性格検査の尺度としては, 既成の検査と比較してほぼ満足できる結果といえよう。またY-G検査, T. I. 検査を含めて因子分析した結果, 得られた6つの尺度は因子空間において予期した方向性を示していることが確かめられた。
    (4) 各尺度の社会的望ましさ (価値) に関する成分を抽出すると, 興味検査においては, 高度の知識や技術を要する男性的興味に関係する尺度, 性格検査においては, 情緒安定性, 社会的外交性などの調和のとれた人格を示す尺度にかなり大きい割合で, 社会的望ましさに関する成分が含まれていることが認められた。
    (5)性格検査における妥当性尺度として, 虚構性尺度, 黙認性尺度の構成法について提案した。
    (6) 興味検査, 性格検査における各尺度の信頼性係数を折半法によって求めたが, 1, 2の尺度を除いてかなり高い尺度の信頼性が保証された。
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  • 豊 美佐子, 小原 三枝子, 前 典子, 東 洋
    19 巻 (1971) 1 号 p. 52-62
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the stimulus conditions under which the occurrence of the infant's speech sound response will be facilitated or inhibited, and the relation between the stimulus conditions and the types of speech sound responses, in connection with his development.
    “Other's babbling sounds,” “crying,” “woman's fondling voice and babbling sounds,” “newscaster's voice,” “woman's fondling voice,” “man's fondling voice,” “his own babbling sounds,” these seven kinds of sound stimuli were tape recorded respectively for a minute. Each of these tape recorded stimuli was played back and presented to 28 infants from 3 to 12 months.
    The results show the following. In infants 3 to 6 months. the number of the infants producing sounds in response to their own babbling sounds during the presentation of the stimulus is significantly greater than that of those responding to other's babbling sound. They produce sounds immediately after the sound stimulus especially in the way they exchange their sounds and the phenomenon of repeating this response pattern is often observed.
    On the. other hand, the number of the infantsproducing sounds in response to their own babbling sounds after the presentation of the stimulus is significantly less than that of those responding to other's babbling sounds. The number of infants producing sounds in respond to woman's fondling voice is similar to that of those to their own babbling sounds, in the sense that it is great in the infants 3 to 6 months and during the presentation of stimulus.
    It is recognized from these facts that in the early half of infancy, the infant often talks alone to himself through auditory feed-back process, and moreover it is connected with Mother's way of talking to the infant and caring for him.
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  • 19 巻 (1971) 1 号 p. 62-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 19 巻 (1971) 1 号 p. 62a-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
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