(1) If the constancy of IQ is understood physiologically, it must mean the constancy of a particular developmental ratio of the individual against the average development of the standardizing group. Namely, we are to read the IQ formula as, _??_...(1) (2) In case of IQ of young children, the ordinary formula of IQ has a disadvantage, when considered as such. For example, a developmental ratio of a child, whose C. A. is 2, and whose M. A. is 3, accordingly whose IQ is 160, is not 1.5, because we should move the original point of the formula from a birth to a conception, if we do so, we get the developmental ratio of 1.35 (12×3+10 divided by 12×2+10) instead of 1.5. For maturely born children, the corrected formula of IQ in general, is,_??_...(2) (3) The effect of correction is large for very young children, but negligible for children of more than 10 years old. Tab. 1 and Fig. 1 show errorneous IQs calculated by the ordinary formula in terms of developmental ratio 1.5-0.5 and C. A. 1-10 the value of k developmental ratio and n C. A. is _??_, and the error is _??_ (4) For prematurely born children, the corrected formula is,_??_...(3) (t being the period of pregnancy of the child) For example, IQ of a child whose C. A. is 3, and whose M. A. is 2 years and 10 months, is 100,(12×2+10+10)/(12×3+8), if he is born at 8 th month, instead of 94 which is given by the ordinary formula. A few reports on the intelligence of prematurely born children that they had inferior IQ's were reexamined and the data were re-calculated by the correction formula (3). we found that, in general, they were not inferior, but quite normal. They say that prematurely born children are inferior, when they are very young. But we do not necessary hear this, when they enter into teenages. It seems to us they are evaluated by Undue C. A. when young, but their true developmental ratio appear soon or later. (5) This formula, too, has a disadvantage, because two different developmental phases of prenatal and postnatal periods are treated as the same.(This is apparent in the sign of plus.) While the development of prenatal period is chiefly physiological, and potential, we should say, in a psychological aspect, the postnatal one is convergent of physiological growth and environ environmental stimuli. A child whose developmental ratio is higher than 1.25, and who is born at 8th month, may be unduly advantageous, because he has greater percentage of periods when he is stimulated by outside experiences, being acceptable of them even at the time of premature birth. Here is a passibility of re-correction. Though we can say, at any rate, that t+a (a>0) instead of t in the denominater May be better, that this a might be expressed a=(10-t)×c (1>c>0) and that c should be determined experimentally, it is very difficult for us, because our present scales of physiological and psychological measurements are too rough and poor for these purposes.
The present paper is a report on the study of the correlation between the degree of physical maturation, determined by the planimetric method of carpal bones, and personal character which is appraised by using Kraepelin numeral addition test, adjustment test and moral judgment test. The research and experiment were made during the period from May, 1952 to October, 1952. The number of subjects is 102-from 4th grade to 6th grade of elementary school children. The abstract of the result is as follows: 1) the author found that there is correlation coefficient. 311 between the degree of physical maturation (indicated by growth quotient=G. Q) and the result of Kraepelin numeral addition test (indicated by Standard Score) and the γ is significant at 1 percent level. 2) The γ between physical maturation degree and the result of adjustment test is. 195 and the γ is insignificant at the 5 percent level. But there is correlation ratio. 423 and the difference between r and n is significant at the 5 percent level. 3) The result of moral judgment test indicates γ. 228 orη. 505 between the result and the physical maturation degree; then the γ and the difference between γ and η are respectively significant at the 5 percent level. 4) There are deeper correlations between the result of three tests of personal character which were used in this study and the intelligence than the correlation between the test results and bodily maturation degree. Furthermore, the author studied last year that there is the low correlation between the physical maturation degree and intelligence. So if we recognize the common factor of intelligence between personal character and physical maturation degree, and remove the common intelligence factor, there is no correlation between personal character and bodily maturation degree. However if we do not consider about the intelligence factor, the author may conclude that there is actually a low but considarable correlation between personal character and physical maturation degree.
I found the following facts in my investigation concerning to the overachiever and underachiever of the elementary and junior high school children: Underachiever is remarkedly inferior to balanced achiever in the personal and social adjustment throughout the elementary and junior high school life. Overachiever is slightly inferior to balanced achiever in junior high school children.
1) Words are regarded as the products of our social life, and frequency of their use, their value and familiarity are thought to have some connection with the question of our consciousness in social life. Social conciousness makes itself appear, in author's opinion, in social attitude. From the two points of view, that is, man's social attitude and word's value, the author conducted free association experiments with some selected words trying to observe the differences among them. 2) Thinking that man's attitude toward words may be either radical or conservative, the author chose some term of radical and conservative natures from six value types, and, ranging from the high-merited terms, classified the radical and conservative words into pairs according to the order of merit. Thus he got thirty-six stimu lus words. Conducting free association experiment on them, he observed their response time and response words. A total of ninety-three subjects all college students took part in the experiment. The result of these experiments were as follows. 3) In free association, response time of radical words was shorter than that of conservative ones. In both radical and conservative words groups, the higher in value the stimulus words were, the shorter was their response time, and the lower in value they were, the longer was their response time. The number of the most frequently responded words in free association was larger in radical words group than in conservative one. In conservative words group as well as in radical one, the higher in value the words are, the smaller were the varieties of the responded words. 4) That radical words were more rapidly responded than conservative ones in free association, and that the varieties of responded words were smaller in radical words group than in conservative one, must, to some extent, be attributed to the fact that college students were chosen as the subject of the experiment. From the results that, in conservative words as well as in radical words, the higher the words are the more quickly are they responded and the smaller are the varieties of responded words, one cannot but conclude that an individual's attitude and his value play an important part in the association response.