I. Problem. This study is one of the action-research projects of the development of student baseball team activities in Kyushu University. The purpote of this study is to analyse their interpersonal relations and to make deveop the human relations in team activities. II. Subjects. Subjects are 16 members of baseball team in Kyushu University. They need not always to have special ability for baseball. The team is composed of those who want to play baseball, even if their ability isnot specially fitted to it. III. Ist ent; Study of the relationship between the individual motor fitness and ability of sociol adjustment. (1) Motor fitness and ability of baseball. The general motor fitness test was given to 14 members. Tie test consists of six factors, namely, strength, power, abillty, flexibility, endurance and balance. The rank order from the first to the fourteenth was made by the results of this test. At the some time, the batting rank order was made by the batting achievement of last year. The rank correlation between the order of motor ability and batting order was 0.174 except one who was the 12th in the motor fitness and the 3rd in the batting order-a very hard worker and a typical overachiever. By the results of questionair which was conducted to the members partiepating in the first camp training this year, it was found: (a) During five days of the camp training 63% of all members felt the existenc of the cohesiveness of the group as a whole. (b) Some 80% of all members began to have friendship each other. (c) Some 70% became awars of the progress of their achievement. (d) 54% suffered from conflicts between the academic studies and team activities. (2) Interview survey The aim of this study was to inquire more personally about the same items as that of the above mentioned question. Its results were as follows; (a) Tho drgree of the cohesiveness of the team as a whole was high. (b) There were many members who felt that the schedule of the 2nd camp training was too tight. (c) It was found that each member called each other with nick-name. (d) They had much interest in the discussion sessions, held twice during the camp training. (e) Only one member displayed sometimes an agressive behavior. He was sometimes late at the open hour of the camp training. In accordance with the results of the Scciogram as will be described later, he was an isolate. (3) Sociometric survey. The sociometric survey was carried out on the last day of the 1st and the 2nb camp training. The formulae of question were as follows: Among your team members, (1) Whom would you want to go to a tea shop with? (2) Whom would you want to take lodgings with? (3) Whom do you like best? (4) Whom would you like as your partner of your experiment? Its results were as follws: (a) The frequency of the choice increased 0.75 for each person in the 2nd camp training, in comparison with the 1st camp training. The results may be interpretated in this way that the camp training had a good influence on the development of the human relations in team activities. (b) Those who had the feeling of inferiority enjoyed a very little popularity. (5) The 3rd Experiment. A study of res lying the conflicts between the academic studies and team activities. (1) By the results of the pre-test, it was found that all members felt, more or less, conflicts, between academic studies and team activities. (2) Introducing the persuasion as a means of resolving the conflicts. The content of persuasion was as follows; At the 1st step, the President of baseball club announced at the presence of all members of baseball team to the effect that: Even if there are some negative aspects in baseball team activities at present time, the experience of club activities will be very much helpful in the light of the whole life experiences,
The authors tried to clarity in Vol.2 No.2 that there were some personality differences between member of a pair of identical twins (EZ). Some of these differences were reduced to those of elder-brother-like and younger-brother-like characteristics as seen between non twin siblings. In Japan there is a great difference in the treatment of the child depending upon his position in the family. In this research as attempt was made to study the relationship of the personality differences between identical twins and their treatment by the family in light of the above mentioned fact. As the first approach the following questionnaire was made. 1. Do you treat the twin differently? 2. Is the order in which baths are taken or the seating at the dinner table strictly followed in your family? 3. Do you treat the elder as the superior? 4. When they quarrel do you arbitrate or scold based on the reason that they are the older or the younger? 5. Which did you feed first during infancy? 6. Which did you bathe first during their infacncy? 7. Which of them do you wake first in the morning? 8. Which do you serve first at meals and at snack time? 9. Which do you call first when you call them at the same time? 10. Which do you introduce first to others? 11. Then there is an important errand to be done which one do you ask to do it? 12. Which do you ask to preform simple errands? 13. Which do you consult about important matters? 14. At the present which do you depend on more? 15. Which do you expect to be more successful in the future? 16. Do the children feel that they are being scolded as the elder or the younger when they quarrel? 17. Do the children feel that that they are treated as the elder or the younger? 18. Are the twins aware that one is the elder and and the other is the younger? Which member of the twin was treated as an elder brother by the family was determined by totaling the number of times he was mamed in the following 14items-items 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 17. The result is shown in Fig. I (x-male, o-female). Although parents say that they treat the twins in the smae manner, in reality there is a difference. As the next step 10 items were chosen from the study which has been reported in a previous article. These 10 items were chosen because it was felt that these best differintiated between elder-brother-like characteristics and youngerbrother-like characteristics. The index of the elder-brother-like characteristic was the number of his elder-brother-like responses to these ten questions. This also applied for yourger-brothe-rlike characteristic for the younger brother.(These items were scored by both members of the twins and by the parent. The total score would therefore be 30.) The results are shown in Fig. II. The following is taken from Fig. I and II. Male N-38 pairs _??_ Female N-30 Pairs _??_The coorelation between the extent to which treatment by the family differs and the extent to which the fraternal personality differences of the identical twins exists is significant at the 1% level. Needless to say the treatment by the family is not the only factor in personality development but it appears that the treatment by the family, that is the family system, plays a role in formulating personality. In addition to the resuits of the questionnaires 6 case studies are reported in the artice.
1. The writer of this report acknowledge the unique contribution of Lewin and Kounin's Rigidity Theory to theorical developments of “Developmental Psychology”. Having found that the behavior traits as referred to by the two psychologists as the phenomenal rigidity, are common to some behavior traits of the old, the writer tried to explain the old-the last stage of development- on the basis of this rigidity concept while endeavoring to verify the concept itself 2. The first puzzle experiment is intended to examine the degree of influence which the solution acquired in the first series of this experiment may have upon the correspondent solution in the third series as the former is considered likely to hamper the latter with declining effects. 3. The second and third card classification experiments are designed to classify the ability of the subjects to change the classification standard either by themselves or upon instruction from the experimenter. 4. This report covered in its serial experiments between 11 and 13 old age (age 63-82 and residents of an old people's home) plus 16 young subjects (age 14). 5. Following are princ pal findings of the above experiments: a. It was found through the first experiment that the old age took less advantage of solution-hints in solving the given puzzles than the young subjects. Attention in called to the fact that the old age who used somehow or the other the solution-hints in the first series of the test did hardly pay attention to them in the initial part of the third series. The writer's clue to this problem is as follows: Assuming that the mental material of the subjects is rigi, it follows that they are liable to act in their immediate-mindedness without being influenced by their past experiences. Their immediate-mindedness-a mental condition in which one is inclined to discard all preceding developments in favor of what is going on at sight-had led them to overlook the significance of the solution hints. b. In the second and third experiments, it was found that the old hardly changed the classification standard. Such a tendency to persevere in one method and consequently refrain from trying any other solution explains itself for the rigidity concept. In other words, the presence of rigid mental material makes it difficult for the old to re-arrange the once established whole relations of each region in accordance with situational changes. 6. It was observed that the old showed the behavior traits which answer to some extent the description given by Kounin in his study of the feebleminded people. 7. All these findings have led the writer to belive that the rigidity concept is useful for the explanation of some behavior traits of the old. But this does not mean that the writer considers that concept to be the only and sufficient interpretation. This being so, the writer suggests that further efforts should be made to examine the whole concept carefully against eventual accumulation of factual evidences.
This study has a close relation with the research done by Lewis, H. B., Franklin, M., Alper, T. G., Glixman, A. F., and Rosenzweig, S. This present study is one of our studies concerning the Recall of the Completed and Interrupted Tasks. The aims of the paper are three items as follows: 1. Though the results that the immediate recall is superior to the delayed recall has been recognized generally since Ebbinghaus, the writers intand to take investigation whether this phenomenon effected by the completed and the interrupted tasks, and also modification on stress existence in the learning fields. 2. What is difference on stress situation among 3 grouds, the first is the total completed tasks in series, the second is the interrupted tasks in series, and the third is the half dompleted tasks and the half interrupted tasks. 3. In case of the second, how time process until recall will be exibit after performance? The subject is 60 junior high school students. The material is jig-saw picture puzzle. The results are as follows: 1. The superior recall of the interrupted tasks that has been populared Is not recognized when the total interrupted tasks in series is recalled. 2. About stress situation, the 24 hours delayed recall is superior to the immediate recall. On non-stress situation, the dirference has not been found between both recalls. 3. In case of the half completed tasks and the half interrupted tasks, the completed tasks and the half interrupted the completed tasks is superior to the interrupted tasks on recall of non-stress situation, when the immediate recall is compared with the 24 hours delayed recall. Under the same condition, the interrupted tasks has more recalls than the completed tasks on stress situation after 24 hours. 4. In another words, as for u/c ratio, 1.09 has increased to I. 19 on the stress situation, and 1.33 has decreased to 1.05 on the non-stress situation after 24 hours. According to the facts mentioned the above, the interrupted task under stress situa tion seems to be influenced by the effect of “repression” mechanism.
Purpose: Recent studies on the resumption of an interrupted task (8)(9)(10) conclude that the important factors which determine the resumption are subject's expectation as to whether he can succeed in that task or not, and the substitute value of the interpolated task. The purpose of this study is to test how these factors, success-expectation and substitute value work under different situational conditions. Subjects: Middle school girls Procedures: Materials are several formboards constituting some simple geometrical figures (cf. figure. 1) Following two different situations are set up by instructions and the instructor's atmosphere. The two different situations are: A...free play situation B...test situation In each situation, subject's free choice of task is examined after the following conditions: a. after successful experience b. after failure experience c. after interruption with expectation of suecess d. after interruption with expectatien of failure e. after being given similar and difficult interpolated task f. after being given the different and uninteresting task (Kraepelin Test) as the interpolated task g. After being given interesting puzzles as the interpolatad task. Results: Under the condition a, in the free play situation most subjects select the task which is different from the original task while in the test situation subjects tend to select the same or the similar task as the original successful one. Under condition b, in both situations A and B, subjects select the task which they failed at first. Condition c and d, in free play situation subjects tend to resume the original interuppted task, but in the test situation there is little tendency to resume. Under condition e, subjects resume the interrupted task Under condition f, subjects resume the interrupted task. Under condition g, there is scarcely any tendency to resume the interrupted task. Conclusion from these results, we see the factor of success and failure is effective only in the test situation. In the free play situation, subject's selection of task is not significantly influenced by the factor of success-failure. And from the results of e, f, g, we see there are some instances in which subject's resuming behavior seems to be independent of the substitute value of the interpolated task. For example, subjects often resume interrupted task after finishing interpolated task which i s supposed to have high substitute value while they do not resume even after be ng given the task which is supposed to have low substitute value but having different new kind of attractiveness in itself. The author conclude that the quality? and amount of the situational stress is the most importunt factor determining subject's selection of the task. We must first examine the dynamic character of the experimental situation. Without such examination, any formalization on the resumption of an interrupted task may be onesided.