In Tohoku Districts of Japan, there are many kinds of dialects. Especially the confusions of vocal sounds, for example, between “ki” and “chi”, or “e” and “i”, are well known. Among 1449 applicants for admission into Teachers' College (Eukushima Univ.) 45 persons caused the abovesaid confusions (“ki”_??_“chi”) in the dictation tests last year (1954). They wrote KIKAKU for CHIKAKU. Here we want to divide these applicants into 2 groups, the Corrupted Group and the Normal Group. The success or failure for admission were determined by their synthetic results of tests and some other means. 600 were admitted into the College, only 9 included among them from the Corrnpted Troup. Thus we have the following contingency table. A COMPARISON OF THE APPLICANTS OF CORRUPTED AND NORMAL AS REGARDS THE RESULTS CF EXAMINATION. _??_ From this table we have χ02=8.772 as the value of χ2 (χ20.01<χ20). So we must reject the Hypothesis that their success and failure do not depend upon their corruption or normality. Then it is very clear that the dialect or corruption handicapped them. As to the members of Corrupted Group, they are only from particular regions-AIZU district and the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture, almost all parts of Miyagi Pref. and the southern half of Iwate Pref., but none from other districts. These regions coincide nearly to the dominion of the feudal Lord of Date. Referring to these results, I gave a Hearing Test this autumn to pupils of 2 schools in (_??_293, _??_287) and 2 schools out (_??_190, _??_176) of these regions. The latters are so to say as the control groups. Conclusion: 1) The confusion “ki”_??_“chi” was only in Corrupted Group, and not, at all, in other regions. 2) This confusion disappears gradually as classes ascent, and faster in the pupils of higher marks in the same class. In those of lower marks such a confusion is not always diminished,.(Thus I guess the confusion perhaps depends upon the sensory or conscious status of not yet differentiated.) 3) This confusion tends to disappear faster in female than in male pupils.
The problems involved in testing speech-reading ability are studied here from two aspects; first, from that of logical validity of some test procedures, second, from that of applicability of analytical methods to the following two tests. One of these two tests (test A) uses a list of 20 nonsense monosyllables, the other (test B) a list of mutually unrelated 30 words as speech material. The purpose of test B consisting of three sub-tests is to evaluate the effect of word-association upon speech-reading. Subtest 1: For exemple, a group of subjects (55 lower secondary deaf school pupils) receives a speech word “ito (thread)”, after having been shown a written stimulus ward “hati (needle)”. The speech intelligibility of the word “thread” is counted, and respresented by the symbol “b (thread-needle)”. Similarly “b (water-ice)” etc. are derived. Subtest 2: The control group (n=54) receives only speech words such as “thread”,“water” etc. The speech intelligibility of each words are represented as “c (thread)”,“c (water)” etc. Subtest 3: Each subject is made to give an association-response to the word “needle”. The symbol “a (thread-needle)” represents the percent of “thread” responses to “needle”. Similarly,“a (water-ice)” etc. are derived. results: (see Table 5, 6.)(a, b, c, in two Tables are above-stated symbols.) Judging from these Tables, the correlation between “a” and “b-c” is doubtful. It is frequently observed that the interacting process of the informations obtained by two different processes, i. e. by the anticipation of succeeding words, and by the visival perception of oral movement, is not a. linear function of these two processes.
In order to classify psychologically the delinquent juveniles, it is in general necessary to find away to reform them according to their personality. First, we started to study, what kind of them can be easily reformed. For this purpose, we have followed up 200 juveniles, who were confined in Yokohama Juvenile Classification Office for their delinquency. There they were subject to various investigations and psychological diagnosis. For these juveniles, we have followed up their behavior after they returned home. Having studied their prognoses statistically for some period (Table 1), and taking the percentage of those who remained non-delinquent for that period (Fig. 1), we could establish that, one year would be sufficient to distinguish approximately those who can be reformed fromed from those who are very difficult to be reformed. On this basis of 1 year prognoses, we have grouped 200 subjects into three classes (reformed + (+), unreformed -(-), and undetermined ± (±),?). By comparing the results of investigations and psychological diagnosis found for the three classes reffered to above, we could find various factors which have influence upon the prognoses. PART 1 First, we found the factors of the life history to have a great influences upon the prognoses. These factors are (1) first delinquency at low age (Table 2),(2) long time of delinquency (Table 3),(3) frequency of past confinement into juvenile classification office (Table 4) and reformatory (Table 5),(4) experience of playing gang at school (Table 6) aed of truancy (Table 7),(5) low education, especially neglection of formal schooling (Table 9), experience of leaving home (Table 10) and of wandering (Table 11),(7) experience of having used stimulant addicts (Table 12), and (8) frequent change of employment (Table 13). These factors are not independent and are related to one another. For example, wandering can be considered to be the extreme case of leaving home. Above all, most of the factors mentioned above are closely related to the length of delinquent history (Table 15). Considering these points more in detail following conclusions have ben derived: (1) The seriousness of delinquent history which can be measured by the frequency of past confinement into juvenile classification office and reformatory, by the use of stimulant addicts, by the school misbehavior, and above all by the length of history of delinquency, is the dominant factor of making difficult the reformation of the delinquent juveniles.(2) Even the delinquent history is not long, the firsrst delinquency at low age seems to make the reformation difficult.(3) Leaving home incuding wandering is another useful scale to predict the diffculty of reformation.(4) Frequency of changing employment is also a scale of predicting the difficulty.(5) The high education makes to some extent the reformation easier.