教育心理学研究
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2 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
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  • 塚田 毅
    2 巻 (1954 - 1955) 4 号 p. 1-3,56
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 塚田 毅
    2 巻 (1954 - 1955) 4 号 p. 1a-3
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 塚田 毅, 久保田 正人
    2 巻 (1954 - 1955) 4 号 p. 4-16,56
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    1「要求調査」を通じての考察の結果, 僻地の子供達と都会の子供達との相違の一面は心理学的生活空間の構造の相違, 即ち分化度の相違に存すると考えられる。
    2僻地の子供の未分化反応は男よりも女に多く認められる。
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  • 中島 力
    2 巻 (1954 - 1955) 4 号 p. 17-22,56
    公開日: 2013/02/19
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    1) 僻地の児童及び青年にA式及びB式の団体知能検査を実施した結果, 各地区別の知能偏差値は41~48点の間にあり, 一般標準若しくは都市の平均に比してかなり低い事が示された。
    2) 農山村と漁村の児童・青年の知能の間には殆んど差を認める事が出来なかつた。
    3) A式とB式の両検査の結果を比較する乙一般的にB式検査の方が成績は良好であるが, これも地区によっては差の認められないものもある。
    4) 下位検査問題に対する成績では僻地の場合はそのすべてに於いて都市の場合よりも劣つている事が示された。しかし問題によつては僻地の児童, 青年にとつて特に困難なものや, それ程ではないものがある様に思われるので, 単に知能の量的な測定のみでなく, 質的な面についても研究される事が必要であると考えられる。
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  • 小室 庄八
    2 巻 (1954 - 1955) 4 号 p. 23-29,57
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    等質の2集団に於ける学習指導法の相異が児童の社会的行動の上に如何なる変容をもたらすかについて, 一ケ年間の実験の結果は卞記の諸項に要約することが出来る。
    1) 児童中心の学習指導法は教師中心の学習指導法に比して児童の社会的行動を促進する。
    2) 交友関係を社会測定的方法によつて測定して見ると, 児童中心の指導法は学友間の理解と交友関係を増進し, 交友拒否の関係に於いて減少する傾向が見られる。
    3) 社会的行動の内容を形成することを目的とする社会科学習の成績を比較して見ると, 児童中心の指導法は, 教師中心の指導法に比較して成績を低下させないばかりでなく, 社会的技能においては増進する傾向が見られる。従つて社会科に関する限り学力低下の原因を学習指導法そのものに帰せらるべきでない。
    4) 知能の要因を考えると, 知能の高いものにとっては児童中心の指導法が有利であり, 知能の低いものには不利であるような傾向が見られる。
    5) 児童中心の指導法では行動の積極的自主的傾向を助長し, 教師中心の指導法では消極的他律的傾向が助長される。
    6) 児童中心の学習指導法では自主的に協力する態度を増進するが, 教師中心の学習指導法では, 利己的であり, 非協力的傾向があらわれる。
    7) 児童中心の指導法では学習意欲が旺盛である。教師中心の指導法では, 時間内はともかく時間外まで延長されることが少い。
    8) 上述の諸傾向は他教科の学習態度にもある程度転移が認められる。
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  • 田口 孝之
    2 巻 (1954 - 1955) 4 号 p. 30-38,58
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    In Tohoku Districts of Japan, there are many kinds of dialects. Especially the confusions of vocal sounds, for example, between “ki” and “chi”, or “e” and “i”, are well known.
    Among 1449 applicants for admission into Teachers' College (Eukushima Univ.) 45 persons caused the abovesaid confusions (“ki”_??_“chi”) in the dictation tests last year (1954). They wrote KIKAKU for CHIKAKU. Here we want to divide these applicants into 2 groups, the Corrupted Group and the Normal Group. The success or failure for admission were determined by their synthetic results of tests and some other means. 600 were admitted into the College, only 9 included among them from the Corrnpted Troup. Thus we have the following contingency table.
    A COMPARISON OF THE APPLICANTS OF CORRUPTED AND NORMAL AS REGARDS THE RESULTS CF EXAMINATION. _??_
    From this table we have χ02=8.772 as the value of χ220.0120). So we must reject the Hypothesis that their success and failure do not depend upon their corruption or normality. Then it is very clear that the dialect or corruption handicapped them.
    As to the members of Corrupted Group, they are only from particular regions-AIZU district and the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture, almost all parts of Miyagi Pref. and the southern half of Iwate Pref., but none from other districts. These regions coincide nearly to the dominion of the feudal Lord of Date.
    Referring to these results, I gave a Hearing Test this autumn to pupils of 2 schools in (_??_293, _??_287) and 2 schools out (_??_190, _??_176) of these regions.
    The latters are so to say as the control groups. Conclusion:
    1) The confusion “ki”_??_“chi” was only in Corrupted Group, and not, at all, in other regions.
    2) This confusion disappears gradually as classes ascent, and faster in the pupils of higher marks in the same class. In those of lower marks such a confusion is not always diminished,.(Thus I guess the confusion perhaps depends upon the sensory or conscious status of not yet differentiated.)
    3) This confusion tends to disappear faster in female than in male pupils.
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  • 佐藤 昭一
    2 巻 (1954 - 1955) 4 号 p. 39-44,59
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The problems involved in testing speech-reading ability are studied here from two aspects; first, from that of logical validity of some test procedures, second, from that of applicability of analytical methods to the following two tests. One of these two tests (test A) uses a list of 20 nonsense monosyllables, the other (test B) a list of mutually unrelated 30 words as speech material. The purpose of test B consisting of three sub-tests is to evaluate the effect of word-association upon speech-reading.
    Subtest 1: For exemple, a group of subjects (55 lower secondary deaf school pupils) receives a speech word “ito (thread)”, after having been shown a written stimulus ward “hati (needle)”. The speech intelligibility of the word “thread” is counted, and respresented by the symbol “b (thread-needle)”. Similarly “b (water-ice)” etc. are derived.
    Subtest 2: The control group (n=54) receives only speech words such as “thread”,“water” etc. The speech intelligibility of each words are represented as “c (thread)”,“c (water)” etc.
    Subtest 3: Each subject is made to give an association-response to the word “needle”. The symbol “a (thread-needle)” represents the percent of “thread” responses to “needle”. Similarly,“a (water-ice)” etc. are derived.
    results: (see Table 5, 6.)(a, b, c, in two Tables are above-stated symbols.)
    Judging from these Tables, the correlation between “a” and “b-c” is doubtful. It is frequently observed that the interacting process of the informations obtained by two different processes, i. e. by the anticipation of succeeding words, and by the visival perception of oral movement, is not a. linear function of these two processes.
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  • 水島 恵一
    2 巻 (1954 - 1955) 4 号 p. 45-54,59
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to classify psychologically the delinquent juveniles, it is in general necessary to find away to reform them according to their personality. First, we started to study, what kind of them can be easily reformed. For this purpose, we have followed up 200 juveniles, who were confined in Yokohama Juvenile Classification Office for their delinquency. There they were subject to various investigations and psychological diagnosis. For these juveniles, we have followed up their behavior after they returned home.
    Having studied their prognoses statistically for some period (Table 1), and taking the percentage of those who remained non-delinquent for that period (Fig. 1), we could establish that, one year would be sufficient to distinguish approximately those who can be reformed fromed from those who are very difficult to be reformed. On this basis of 1 year prognoses, we have grouped 200 subjects into three classes (reformed + (+), unreformed -(-), and undetermined ± (±),?). By comparing the results of investigations and psychological diagnosis found for the three classes reffered to above, we could find various factors which have influence upon the prognoses.
    PART 1
    First, we found the factors of the life history to have a great influences upon the prognoses. These factors are (1) first delinquency at low age (Table 2),(2) long time of delinquency (Table 3),(3) frequency of past confinement into juvenile classification office (Table 4) and reformatory (Table 5),(4) experience of playing gang at school (Table 6) aed of truancy (Table 7),(5) low education, especially neglection of formal schooling (Table 9), experience of leaving home (Table 10) and of wandering (Table 11),(7) experience of having used stimulant addicts (Table 12), and (8) frequent change of employment (Table 13).
    These factors are not independent and are related to one another. For example, wandering can be considered to be the extreme case of leaving home. Above all, most of the factors mentioned above are closely related to the length of delinquent history (Table 15). Considering these points more in detail following conclusions have ben derived: (1) The seriousness of delinquent history which can be measured by the frequency of past confinement into juvenile classification office and reformatory, by the use of stimulant addicts, by the school misbehavior, and above all by the length of history of delinquency, is the dominant factor of making difficult the reformation of the delinquent juveniles.(2) Even the delinquent history is not long, the firsrst delinquency at low age seems to make the reformation difficult.(3) Leaving home incuding wandering is another useful scale to predict the diffculty of reformation.(4) Frequency of changing employment is also a scale of predicting the difficulty.(5) The high education makes to some extent the reformation easier.
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  • 2 巻 (1954 - 1955) 4 号 p. 56
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
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