The setting is a situation in which the children are given the insufficient tools and therefore it is necessary to lend or give the tools mutually I aimed to investigate the role of mimicry in little children's learning of social activities such as cooperation in attaining their common or respective object, communication by language expressing their demands and wishes, and greeting to express thair thanks to the others for giving or lending them the tools. In Experiment I, concerning the expression of their wishes by language, the children in the experimental group learned to follow another's example significantly differently from those in the control group. They did not, however, perform the examples which were not inevitably necessary to practice the exercises. In Experiment 2, the children were trained to practice activities which had been unacquired by mimicry. Even those activities which were not acquired in Experiment I were easily attained through a short training time by games. And those learnings proved to be effective for other similar exercises. It was shown that the children in Group L who had not been able perform the social activities in preexperimental tests could be trained more effectively when ther were trained with those in Group H who could already behave so than with others in Group L. The untrained cihldren could also be trained by mimicry when they were trained with the trained ones in the postexperimental tests. And their acquisition of mimicry was maintained even when they were trained with other untrained ones. With these observations we should consider that children can more easily acquire social activities when they are trained in mass where mimicry plays a significant part. And it was shown that trainigs with games make those acquisitions more effective.
The present study is to investigate whether the presentation of imformation with objective uncertainty arouses conceptual conflict and cognitive motivation and there is an optimal level of objective uncertainty both on conceptual conflict and on cognitive motivation, Objective uncertainty is manipulated by the number of alternatives. The first of the three experimental groups is presented with two alternatives, the second with four alternatives, the third with six alternatives, while the control group is presented with only one. The alternatives used are about the theories of evolution as Darwinism, Lamarkism and so on. The hypotheses tested are as follows: 1) There is an optimal level of odjective uncertainty, which arouses a maximal conceptual conflict and cognitive motivation. 2) When objective uncertainty arouses the optimal conceptual conflict, then an individual finds pleasure. Therefore, when conceptual conflict below the optimal level is aroused in him, he will seek for higher level of uncertainty. 3) This optimal level of students with high imformation-processing ability will reach higher point than that of students with low ability. In experiment I 144 junior high school pupils are divided into the three experimental groups and one control group. In experiment II 72 junior high school pupils were divided into the twoor fouralternative group. In experiment III 144 senior high school students were divided into the three experimental groups and one control group. Each of the three experiments consisted of the two sessions ; in the first session, different imformation concerning the level of objective uncertainty was presented to each of the four groups, and the Ss of the three experimental groups were asked to select an alternative which they thought to be correct. Then conceptual conflict and cognitive motivation were measured. In the second session, the imformation to reduce conceptual conflict was given, and retention of this imformation as an index of motivation, was investigated. The index of conceptual conflict was the degree to which Ss were puzzled in deciding the alternative. The indexes of cognitive motivation were as follows: 1) The degree of epistemic curiosity, or the degree to which they wanted to know about the correct alternative, and the degree to which they liked to listen to the rest parts of the story. 2) The number and content of epistemic questions as possible about the experimental content. 3) The degree of imformation gathering ; Ss were given a booklet on the theories of evolution and were asked to read it in a limited time. 4) Retention of imformation to reduce conceptual conflict. 5) Approach tendency toward uncertainty, or the degree to which they wanted to know more about other theories of evolution. The results obtained were as follows: In experiment I and II, it was verified that there was an optimal level of objective uncertainty on conceptual conflict, that is, conceptual conflict was the highest in the four-alternative level. Concerning motivation there was an optimal level, but which differed with the indexes ; the four-alternative level was the optimal on epistemic curiosity and imformation gathering, while on epistemic questions and retention of information the two-alternative level was the optimal. The two-alternative level showed the approach tendency toward uncertainty. In experiment III, through all indexes of conceptual conflict and cognitive motivation, the fouraltarnative level was the optimal. Especially both on epistemic questions and retention of imformation, we found increase of the optimal level, which verified the hypothese 3.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the problems of cognitive interference effects related to intelligence. The modified Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) and Intelligence Tests were administered to over 38 elementary school pupils for Experiment 1 and 45 mentally retarded pupils in junior high school for Experiment 2. The cognitive interference effects of Ss were inferred from their performance on the SCWT. The SCWT consists of three cards. On the card A four color names; red, blue, green and yellow are printed in black in Japanese. On the other hand card B has the same four colors. Card C is the interference card Which has no color names printed in the corresponding colors. Ss were instructed to read aloud as rapidly as possible the color names on card A and colors on card B and card C irrespective of color names. All Ss in Experiment 1 received a retest of the SCWT after one year. Reaction times and Error responses taken for each of the three cards were recorded as the measure of the SCWT. The main results were as follows: The reliabilities of the measures (RT) of the SCWT were determined by Spearmans Coefficient (rs) of rank correlation between the first and second administrations in Experiment 1. The RTs of the SCWT showed great developmental and practice effects, but the reliabilities of the RTs of the SCWT got to a highly significant level. The RT taken on the card C was differentially greater, than the RTs taken on the cards A and B. This holds both for normal and mentally retarded pupils analyzed separately. The intercorrelation coefficients of RTs of three cards showed high scores for normal pupils and for mentally retarded pupils. The rs between RTs of the SCWT and Standard Scores of Intelligence tests showed high negative scores in Experiment 1. The mean RT of Boarderline pupils was smaller than the mean RTs of Imbecile and Moron Pupils in Experiment 2 It was clear that individual differences in cognitive interference might be profitably related to intelligence.
Using educable mental retardates (middle school pupils), it was examined whether coding from visual modality to auditory modality or in the reversed direction between stimulus acceptance and response has a facilitating effect on recognition and learning. 1. In the experiment 1, recognition performances (correct responses) were compared between the like modality group (task A. visual memorization-visual recognition; task B. auditory memorization-auditory recognition) and the cross modality group (task C. visual memorization-auditory recognition; task D. auditory memorization-visual recognition). As a result, the cross modality group (the coding condition) was superior to the like modality group. 2. And then, the recognition performances were compared between the two tasks of each group. There was no difference between the tasks (A and B) of the like modality group in recognizing learning words. However, the performances of the visual memorization task (C) in the cross modality group are higher than the auditory (D). This primacy of the visual memorization over the auditory one was observed in paired-associate learning (experiment II) as well. 3. In experiment II, learning performances (correct responses) in paired-associate learning were compared among the visual learning group (the like modality condition), auditory learning group (the like modality condition) and visual-auditory learning group (the cross modality condition). The visual-auditory learning group and visual learning group were at an equal level, and the auditory learning group was at the lowest in the performances. 4. From the outcomes of the experiments mentioned above, the facilitating effect of coding on recognition was confirmed. This effect was considered to be not only due to the verbalization of stimuli by the subjects themselves, but also due to the interruption of intruding of extraneous stimuli into learning stimuli. Further, the primacy of the visual memorization over the auditory one was explained as an effect of the developmental exchange for a way of memorization, and as an effect of utilizing visual cues of stimuli.
The purposes of this study were to reveal the personality characteristics of religious groups, the relationship between religious behavior and personality characteristics and their change by religious education. Ss were 76 religious students and 302 believers of Tenrikyo religion, 51 religious students and 200 believers of Sekaikyuseikyo religion, 60 non-religious students of Kyoto University and 49 non-believers of Tenri-City. Data were obtained from a questionnaire, interview and free description. A questionnaire had a ‘religious behavior’ scale and a personality scale. The ‘Religious behavior’ scale consists of 19 ‘religious acts’ items and 29 ‘religious consciousness’ items. The personality scale consists of seven subscales with a total of 85 items ; Dependency, Anxiety, Affiliation, Aggression, Abasement, Nurturance, Super-ego strength. Ss were personally interviewed and desired free description, and then their faith and religion were considered from these data. The results and discussion were as follow; (1) Religious students were significantly higher in Dependency, Nurturance, Affiliation and Super-ego strength than non-religious students (TABLE 1). (2) Believers were significantly higher in Affiliation and Nurturance than non-believers (TABLE 2). (3) There were high positive correlations between religious behavior and each of Affiliation, Nurturance and Super-ego strength. There was a negative correlation between religious behavior and Aggression (TABLE 3). (4) Scores in the religious behavior scale and the personality scale were affected by sex, age, home enviroment and the indiulduol's motivation to the religion. There was no significant difference in religious behavior between male and female Ss, but in personality aspects, female Ss was less aggressive and more abasive than maleSs (TABLE 4). The older group was more religious, more affiliation, more nurturant and less aggressive than the younger group (TABLE 5). (5) As the result of religious education for three months, religious behavior was heightened and various changes in personality were observed. Particularly in male Ss, the attitude of absolute reliance on god and self-sacrifice increased, and in female Ss, Dependency and Anxiety decreased (TABLE 6 and 7).