The present study aimed at investigating the effect of verbal presentation of a ‘weak’ transformation rule on verbatim memory task performance. A weak rule means a rule that is incomprehensive (referring only to limited aspect(s) of information to be learned), ambiguous (allowing multiple correspondence), and/or having exceptions. Logically, even a weak rule can partly reduce the memory load of the learner. Three lists of Japanese-German word pairs were constructed (See TABLE 1). They have 6, 28 and 9 pairs, respectively. Over these three lists, there is specific correspondence in consonants between the German words and their English counterparts, but no such correspondence in vowels and endings. Regularities of consonant correspondence can be represented in terms of 6 rules (TABLE 3) with slight ambiguity and few exceptions. Four groups of university students were presented and tested on List 1 and then List 2, given 1 a _??_minute interpolated memory task followed by a retention test of List 2, and finally tested on unlearned List 3 (TABLE 2). Procedures were different among the groups only in timing of presenting and explaining the 6 rules. Group A was given them just prior to the first presentation of List 2, Group B between the second and third (final) presentation, and Group C after the final presentation. They were allowed to keep a copy of the rules for reference up to the retention test of List 2. Group D was not presented the rules. The findings were as follows: 1) Verbal presentation of the rules inhibited learning; Groups A and B were inferior to C and D in recall and recognition tests after the third presentation.(TABLE 4) 2) Giving rules just before testing improved performance; Group C excelled D. 3) Learning under the rules facilitates generalization; Groups A and B outperformed C and D in the test of List 3. 4) Performances before and after the interpolated memory task (including test) remained nearly unchanged in all groups. 5) Analysis of errors suggests that those ignorant of the rules tended to make errors non-conforming to them, but fewer errors in vowels and/or endings alone.(TABLE 5) 6) Findings 1) and 5) combined show the advantage gained by awareness of the rules was more or less outweighed by overconformity to them and neglect of non-rule aspects.
Young children tend to behave egoistic as a result of egocentrism. Some studies indicate when a child was told to divide tokens between himself and his partner, the number of which is odd, the younger the child was, the more likely he got more to himself. This study is planned to explore the effects of equitabel and inequitable situations upon young children's (5-yr-old) tendencies to share with others. Inequity results in tension which promote the individual to attempt to restore equity. Children (Ss) played a question game with a partner (P, same sex, same age) in which they received rewardtokens that were worth valuable prizes. In the low group the S received less rewards than P. In the equal group each received the same number of rewards. In the high group S received more rewards than P. When the first game is over, the number of reward-tokens is counted by the experimenter. Then S and P play the second game (block-building). Here S is offered the opportunity to share a preset number of rewards with P after each trial. There are eight trials. From the theory of inequity, it is expected that S in the low group distributes to himself more than the partner, S in high group less, S in equal group same. Predictions from inequity theory obtained partial support. Children in low group rewarded themselves generously to restore the equity, but it was not enough to cover the inequity. Most children in equal group divide the tokens equally to retain the equity. Some children in the high group rewarded themselves less than the partner expected from the prediction. The others rewarded as many as the partner and retained the superiority given by the experimenter at the first game.