教育心理学研究
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26 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
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  • 坂野 雄二
    26 巻 (1978) 2 号 p. 66-74
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    本実験は, 同時弁別課題を用いた観察学習において, 観察者がモデル観察中に行う, 弁別課題の適切・不適切次元に対する言語化と, モデルの反応様式の違いが, 観察学習にそれぞれどのような効果をおよぼしているのかを検討するために行われた。その際, 言語化の条件としては, 課題の適切・不適切各次元に対する言語化条件と言語化なしの合計3条件が, また, モデルの反応様式としては, 試行中75%, 25%の正答をそれぞれ示すモデルの2条件が用いられた。被験児は小学校2年生児童 (平均年齢8才2か月) 66名である。
    主な結果は以下に示す通りである。
    1) モデル観察直後にモデルと同じ課題を行うテスト試行では, 正答を優位に示すモデル (正答75%群) の方が, 誤答を優位に示すモデル (正答25%群) よりも観察学習の成績は良く, 言語化の条件による差は認められなかった。観察学習の成立には, モデルの反応様式が反映されていた。しかしながら, 統計的に有意ではないものの, モデルが誤答を多く示し, 刺激が複雑な場合には, 課題の適切次元に対する言語化に効果があるのではないかということが示唆された。
    2) モデルがもはや存在しない時に, モデル観察時と同一のルールで別の課題を解くという転移試行では, テスト試行とは逆に, モデルの反応様式によっては学習の差は生じず, 観察者による, モデル観察時の言語化の内容によって学習成績に差が生じた。すなわち, モデル観察時に課題の適切次元に対して言語化を行った被験児は, 他の2条件の被験児よりも学習が速やかに行われた。
    これらの結果は, 観察学習の成立は, モデルの反応様式という, モデルの持っている特性に対する観察者の注意によるところが大きいが, その保持には何らかの言語的な表象過程が関与しているということを示している。
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  • 高木 和子
    26 巻 (1978) 2 号 p. 75-83
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The effect of temporal order structure and cog nitive content variables on understanding the instructional sentences of ordering syllogisms were studied in three experiments. In each experiment, 5 and 6 years old children participated in a task to solve 32 spatial ordering linear syllogisms containing the relation words: “in front of” and “behind”. The present author thought that the task-structure of syllogisms was composed of such two factors, as the type of relational inference and the direction of relational operation, and used those tasks as experimental tasks. Two types of sentences that had almost the same meaning but different grammatical structure, especially in temporal order position of relation words, were used.
    The main findings were as follows.
    (1) Such a sentence that the subject of the second prose was the logical actor, or that relational operation of both proses were based on the same anchor point but were different in direction, were understood easily (in Exp. I).
    (2) In spite of having grammatical complexity, such a type of sentence with a relation word appearing early was easily understood (in Exp. II).
    (3) It was difficult, for Ss who had low ability to grasp the relatedness of visual image, to understand the syllogisms task containing relational operations based on the different anchor point (in Exp. III).
    These findings suggested that comprehensibility of these relational statements did not depend on the grammatical complexity of the sentence but on the content of sentence preparing cognitive framework that made Ss easily create a whole image of arrangements.
    Finally, from these findings and suggestions, it was proposed that the processes of understanding these relational statements consisted of the following subprocesses: on hearing the first prose Ss create a spatial image based on relational operations, then when Ss hear the second prose, they use the spatial image as a cognitive framework to create a whole image. Based on these two processes, Ss understand the meaning of the whole sentence.
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  • 辻岡 美延, 山本 吉廣
    26 巻 (1978) 2 号 p. 84-93
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. 従来の親子関係の類型化のための諸研究が概観された。
    2. 親子関係診断尺度EICAによる親子関係の客観的類型化の手順が説明された。
    3. ES (情緒的支持), ID (同一化), CO (統制) およびAU (自律性) の4次元について, 父および母のプロフィールと親子関係診断座標の作成法が, コンピュータによる方法とテスト用紙そのものを用いて行う方法との2法について説明された。
    4. これによって, 10種の単独類型と7種の組合せ類型とが提案された。
    5. 父母の組合せ類型における同調性の内容が考察された。
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  • 柴田 幸一
    26 巻 (1978) 2 号 p. 94-103
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究の目的は, 1) 弁別移行学習の分野へ実験教育を導入して, 正刺激の値名をいかにして見つけ出すかという解決ストラテジーについての行為を幼児に教え, 同時に, 2) Гальпеpинらの“知的行為の多段階形成説”の第2段階や第3段階の意義を, この分野において検討することであった。
    被験児は, 4~6歳児104名。2×2×4の要因配置言語による認識能力の2水準 (上位・下位), RSと NRSの移行型, 教授法I~III と統制群IV-が用いられた。事前テストにおける次元間比較課題の成績で被験児を2水準に分け, その後1週間を経て, 2次元2値による弁別移行学習を行った。実験教育は, 先行, 移行の両学習の間に実施された。その1か月後, フォローアップ・テスト (把持テストと転移テスト) が行われた (FIG. 2参照)。
    主な結果は次の通りであった。1) 教授法IとIIは, 上位. 下位の両群に対して有意に効果があった。2) 教授法IIIは, 上位群には有意に効果があったが下位群にはなかった。3) 教授法1は, 持続性と転移可能性という点でも効果があった。4) 教授法IIは, 転移可能性の点で有意な効果はなかったが, 持続性という点では効果がないとは必ずしも言えなかった。
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  • 福島 脩美, 豊田 弘巳
    26 巻 (1978) 2 号 p. 104-113
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present experiment was designed,(1) to clarify the functional characteristics of vicarious self reinforcement comparing with the function of vicarious external reinforcement, and (2) to estimate the relative effect of modeled performance level and modeled vicarious reinforcement patterns to the performances and self evaluative pattern of observers.
    The subject were 86 boys and 72 girls, ranging in age from 10 years 5 months to 11 and half years, drown from 5 classes in 5th grade in a public primary school. Model was a 19 years old female undergraduate, and experimenter was a 23-year old male graduate.
    So as to equalize the task abilities in each experimental and each control groups, the figurenumber substitution task was first administered to all subjects in classroom settings. Then, model and/or each subject was administered three trials of simple arithmetic calculation based upon figurenumber substitution (e. g. _??_) in a booklet. 18 calculation problems were printed, for each trials, Model and subject were given 50 sec. to resolve the problems and 30 sec. inter-trial intervals to rest and to evaluate one's performance. The self evaluation of each subject was measured on the 3 point-graphic scale (not enough, nough, highly enough) after each trial.
    A 2×2×2×2 factorial design was employed. Half of the experimental children observed high performance model, and half were exposed to low performance model. In both conditions, half the children observed vicarious reward. While the remaining children in each group witnessed vicarious punishments. In addition, each group was further divided into external (reinforcement was administered by experimenter) or internal (model's self reinforcement) control condition.
    In high performance condition, model performed 10 problems, and in low performance condition, model performed 6 or 7 problems in each trial. These scores were determined based upon the performance level of no-model control group (Mean=8.25, SD=1.87) of 39 subjects.
    In reward condition, model or experimenter evaluated model's performance as highly enough, and in punishment condition, they devaluated model's performance as not enough.
    The main results were p resented in FIG. 1. 2. 3. Analysis of variance performed on over-all self evaluation scores disclosed that highly significant effects were produced by the vicarious reward punishment (F=52.85, P<0.001), and not produced by the other variables. So, vicarious self reinforcement and vicarious external reinforcement were found to be equally efficacious in the modification of self evaluative behavior of observers.
    Children who obsarved model's self punishment raised significantly their evaluation more affirmatively from first trial to third trial.(t=3.16, P<0.01) But children who observed model receive external punishment did not altered their evaluative standard. So we consider that there should be subtle but important differences between the informative functions of vicarious self reinforcement and vicarious external reinforcement. Vicarious self reinforcement may transmit the self-monitoring flexible self reinforcement pattern, while vicarious external reinforcement, may transmit other-oriented inflexible self reinforcement pattern.
    Analysis of variance on performance scores revealed that any independent variables we introduced did not produce significant differences.
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  • 辻野 直子
    26 巻 (1978) 2 号 p. 114-123
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    In their play, children often use some objects to designate and replace others. We call such use of objects “symbolic use”, the objects “signifiers” and the designated objects “signified”.
    The purpose of the present study is to examine: (1) the role of play activities in symbolic use,(2) the developmental change of symbolic use.
    64 nursery school children, aged from 3 to 6, took part in these three experiments.
    Experiment I (outside of play 1)
    8 objects are presented one by one and each S is asked whether the object (signifier) can be used or not as a certain suggested object (signified).
    Experiment II (outside of play 2)
    Each S is told a fairy tale and presented some figures (signifier) representing, in varying degrees of similarity, the characters (signified) in the story. The S is then asked to choose which figure he sees as representing the character in the story.
    Experiment III (inside of play)
    The same objects, as in the Experiment I, are presented in the role-taking-play whith a certain suggested theme. Each S is observed to see if he can actually use the object as a certain suggested object as in the Experiment I.
    Comparing the results in the Experiment I and III, inside of play (Experiment III), we may infer that “symbolic use” is easier than outside of play (Experiment I).“Symbolic use” can be achieved inside of play so long as the objects can support the same activities as the signified objects, regardless of the dissimilarity of the object to the “signified”. Outside of play, however,“symbolic use” is more difficult, especially with objects which are distinctly different from that “signified”. These results suggest that actual symbolic use may facilitate symbolic function in children.
    Concerning the development of symbolic use, cases inside of play are more observed in the older age group than in the younger, and cases outside of play are more often recorded in the younger than in the older age group. In the former type of “symbolic use”, the object and its “signified” are joined by play activities, regardless of the difference between them therefore, children in the older age group who have the former experience of play activities and play themes make this type of “symbolic use”, more readily than the younger. On the other hand, in the latter type of “symbolic use,” the object and its “signfied” are joined in their similarities. Then the older children who can discriminate strictly the difference between the two make this type less readily than the younger.
    In conclusion, we may infer that among these two types of “symbolic use”,“symbolic use” inside of play might be the main road of development of symbolic function in children, leading to the level of “sign” where the “signifier” sharply differs from its “signified”.
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  • 田中 敏隆
    26 巻 (1978) 2 号 p. 124-128
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    本論文は, 類同視の実験条件下において, 図形と文字について比較検討することにより方向性について一層の吟味を試みたものである。
    (1) 逆位関係図形 (文字) の中で幼児は, 180度図形 (文字), 上下軽倒図形 (文字) よりも, 鏡映図形 (文字) を圧倒的に類同重視する。
    (2) 鏡映図形 (文字) は, 5歳から8歳にかけて急速に類同軽視され, これに反して45度図形 (文字) は, 5 歳から8歳にかけて急速に類同重視される。
    (3) これらの両方位における類同視の重みの転換は, 図形では8歳に, 文字では7歳に認められ, 文字の方が1年早期に出現する。
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  • 今井 靖親
    26 巻 (1978) 2 号 p. 129-132
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 藤縄 真理子
    26 巻 (1978) 2 号 p. 133-137
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 26 巻 (1978) 2 号 p. 141-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
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