To investigate the relationships between content structure of prose and information processing abilities, one group of 61 college students read passages with lots of words explicitly describing conjunctive relations among sentences and some other 61 students read passages with few such words. A memory test, a vocabulary test and an inference test Were administered to measure the relevant abilities. An immediate cued recall, a delayed cued recall and a delayed free recall were measured as dependent variables. Results strongly suggest the existence of a disordinal interaction between passage type and inference ability. That is, a number of connectives stating explicitly conjunctive relations among sentences influenced the understanding and retention of content differentially according to the reader's inference ability. Implications of this aptitude-treatment interaction to education were discussed.
This study aimed at investigating the developmental study of topographical localization in school children. The purpose of Experiment I was to examine the effect of perceptual and spatial cues on topographical localization in landscape task. For this purpose, three task were varied as to the degree of cues. Each task required 216 subjects (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, grades) to observe both position and gaze direction of one doll on unrotated landscape, and then to place the other doll on rotated landscape in the same position as the doll on unrotated landscape, facing the same direction. The results were: (1), the cues had effect on the acceleration of localization.(2) the degree of acceleration was different in the degrees of cues, age grades, the points of landscape and the kind of localization-(a) position in the correspondent quadrant formed by the intersection of a road and a stream (b) gaze direction of a doll (c) precise position (d) simultaneous consideration on gaze direction and precise position. These results suggested: that by using remarkable objects as cues, one reference system of one's own body as a reference point to define the position of objects was easily constructed, and the change of reference directions between rotated and unrotated landscape was easily grasped, and the reference system of one's body on unrotated landscape was reconstructed on rotated landscape. The purpose of Experiment II was to investigate the difference of transformation of relation of topographical position and gaze direction in the landscape task among cognitive formation levels of grasping the change of relation of objects. The Ss, who could not transform the relation of positions, were 60 school children (6:9-8:7). The Ss were divided into three groups, and trained in accordance with the method of experimental education. Group C: trained for one day. The Ss defined the position of objects by front-back, right-left relation to one's own body and other person's body at any points. Group E2: trained for two days. After the same training as group C, the Ss could transform the relation of positions by concrete acts, in relation to one's own body as measure. Group E1: trained for five days. After the same training as Group E2, the Ss could discover the transformational rule, and used it to transfer the relation of positions. The results were; group E1 was better than group E2, group E2 was better than group C in landscape task. Conclusion,(1) it became clear that important variable was as follows: to grasp the change of reference directions by concrete acts, and to reconstruct the reference system of one's body as a reference point to define the position of objects. But these concrete acts had little effect on the acceleration of acquisition of transformation of topographical position and gaze direction.(2) After the concrete acts, using the transfofmational rule had much effect not only on the acceleration of acquisition of transformation of relation of topographical position and gaze direction but also on its retention.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the method of teaching, by which middle grade school children could draw and read the orthographic views (third angle projection) with forming actions of projection (P) and construction (C). On the base of preliminary experiments, the training program of 23 steps consisting of the following 5 blocks was produced. In the first block of training (step 1-8), children learned to draw the three orthographic views (front, right-side, and top views) of a point inside a three-dimensional-cordinate frame (the projectograph). Afterwards, they learned to construct a point in the frame through reading three views being given as tasks. In the second block (step 9-11), they learned to draw the three views of a straight line inside the frame, and then learned to construct a straight line in the frame on the three views. In the third block (step 12-16), they learned to draw the three views of cubes inside the frame, and then learned to construct cubes on the three views of them without the help of frame. In the fourth block (step 17-21), they learned to transform the isometric drawing into the orthographic views and vice versa. In the last block of training (step 22-23), they learned to produce and draw the three-dimensional figure image for an object through reading orthographic views of it, and then learned to rotate 90° and 180° to the right or left mentally before drawing it. Based on performance levels of projection and construction tests for 43 school children in third grade, 8 pairs of matched Ss who had no knowledge of the orthographic projection and had not yet acquired the actions of P and C were selected, and were assigned at random to each of the experimental and control group. 8 children in experimental group (8:1-9:0) were trained individually in accordance with the training program for about three months, but 8 children in control group (8:1-8:11) underwent only the control tests periodically without any training. As results, the following facts were ascertained: 1) Under the training program, even middle grade school children could acquire the ability of Euclidian spatial representation. 2) Ex. gr. children were able to learn the actions of P and C, necessary for the learning of the technical drawing. 3) Especially, they could acquire the ability of spatial representation enabling mentally the rotation higher of the produced image through reading orthographic views to some directions. 4) But the acquired spatial ability of children by the training program remained at a level influencing partially on the solutions of Piaget's “three mountain tasks” and tasks of the projection of straight lines. In conclusion, this experiment suggested the high possibility of teaching enabling middle grade school children to draw and read the orthographic views under the condition of an elaborated training program.