The purposes of this investigation were to construct scales to measure achievement-related motives and to find out the factorial structure among achievement- relatedm otives measured by means of these scales. Two hundred and ninety-nineu niversitys tudents (213 males and 86 females). of an introductory Psychology course served as subjects. Subjects were asked to fill out 64 items to be answered “Yes” or “No”. These items were designed to assess the motive to achieve (Ms), the motive to avoid failure (M-f), and the motive to avoid success (M-s). In order to select items for each scale and to determine the weighted scores for alternative response, the method of optimal scaling was applied to the data of subjects'response pattern. This scaling was a quantification techique for categorical data and was to assign numerical values to alternatives. T he values were chosen so that the variance between subjects after scaling was maximum with respect to variance within subjects. Eight scales made of 5 items respectively were obtained. Four of these scales were related to Ms (HS Scale I measured an instrumental activity in achievement situation; HS Scale II measured a hope of success; HS Scale III measured a reductive attitude to achievement tension; HS Scale IV measured an excessive self-confidence). Two scales were related to M-f (FF Scale I measured a debilitating test anxiety; FF Scale II measured a facilitatingt est anxiety). The qther two scales were related to M-s (FS Scale I measured a fear of loss of affiliation; FS Seale II measured a denying attitude for attaining success). There was a significant sex difference on the mean score of HS Scale II, but no significant sex difference recorded on FS Scale I and FS Scale II. Four factors were extracted by the principal component analysis from the correlation coefficients among8scale values, and the factors were rotated to orthogonal simple stducture using the normalized varimax criterion. The extrfour acted bipolar factors accounted for 71% of the total variance. Factor I had positive high loading for FS Scale I and negative high loading for HS Scale IV. This factor could be defined as the human relation on achievementoriented situation. Factor II had positive high loading for HS Scale I and negative high loading for HS Scale III. It seemed appropriate to refer to this factor as the positive versus negative activity of achievement-oriented tendency with the motive to achieve. Factor III had positive high loading for FS Scale II and negative high loading for HS Scale II. This factor could be defirled as the positive versus negative attitude for attaining success. Factor IV had positive high loading for FF Scale II and negative high loading for FF Scale I. It seemed appropriate to refer to this factor as the positive versus negative direction of achievement-oriented tendency with the motive to avoid failure.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-instruction on children's resistance to temptation. It was expected that task relevant self-instruction would be effective for self-control, and verbal control would vary from overt to covert: i. e. the covert self-instruction would become as effective as the overt. The task-relevant instruction especially meant the reward-oriented or temptation-inhibiting instruction. Furthermore, the children who were trained to self-instruct would be expected to resist the later test situation. The purpose of the experiment I was to examine the effects of overt or covert self-instruction on resistance to temptation. Sixty-nine children, from 3 to 6 years of age, were asked to perform the repetitive task facing temptation. They were given task -facilitating self-instruction by the experimenter, and instructed to verbalize when they felt like looking at the temptation. O group was instructed to verbalize overtly and C group covertly; OC group was first overtly and then covertly. I group was given task-irrelevant self-instruction as N group was not. A 5×2 factorial design, with types of self-instruction and the strength of temptation,(more attracte or less attractive) were used. The results clearly showed that task-facilitating self-instruction was significantly effective for children's resistance to temptation. That is, the task-relevant self-instruction inhibited to respond to the temptation reduced the time to deviate from the task, and facilitated the child's attention to the task. In the experiment II, the effects of overt self-instruction with different contents were examined. Furthermore, the generality of the ability of resistance to temptation was examined. Forty children, aged from 3 years 4 months to 5 years 1 month, were asked to verbalize self-instruction overtly, facing temptation. Four types of self-instruction were used, task-facilitating (TF group), temptation-inhibiting (TI group), reward-oriented (RO group) and irrelevant one (I group). N group Was not given any self-instructions. A 5×2 factorial desing, that varied the contents of self-instruction and the strength of the temptation was used. The procedure was almost the same as in, exp. I. Compared to the I group and N group, the subjects given task-relevant self-instruction showed greater resistance to the temptation significantly. And in experiment II, the results showed the tendency that irrelevant self-instruction was also effective for self-control. Although the statistical significance was not found between relevant and irrelevant self-instruction, these findings suggested that task-relevant self-instructions were more effective for resistance to temptation. These findings further suggested that there were two types of strategy for self-control in resistance to temptation: facilitate the subjectis attention to the task, and inhibit attention to the temptation. In the later test situation, the subjects who were given task-relevant self-instruction significantly reduced the time to deviate, but the relation between Exp. II and the test situation of each subject was low.
This research attempts to determine the natural ability of children in learning to write. It is especially concerned with determining the earliest age at which children might benefit from reading instruction. The subjects were 95 Japanese nursery school girls (40) and boys (55) grouped according to age from 2 to 6 years. They were given 5 hiragana figures (ka, su, hi, me, ru) and 5 Roman figures (B, H, O, S and W-all capitals) to trace and to copy in two sizes, small (2 1/2cm×21/2cm) and large (5cm×5cm). For tracing, dotted lines formed the component strokes and the entire figure while a single entire figure was presented for copying into a blank space. The test period extended over two weeks, 5 days a week, with the test period on each day lasting less than 20 minutes. In the first week, the subjects traced figures. On each test day, the 2 and 3 year olds were given l hiragana and l Roman figure in both the small and large sizes to trace, while the 4, 5and 6 year olds were given 2 hiragana figures and 2 Roman figures in the two sizes. In the second week, the subjects copied the same figure they had been given to trace. Two judges independently rated the 5th day's subject responses on both the tracing and copying task. The judges rated the quality of each figure on a 5 point scale, where l indicated unidentifiable and 5 indicated near adult. The correlation between the judges' responses was +.85 for the tracing task and +.91 for the copying task. The results from analyses of variance show that Age, Sex Task and Size each has a significant main effect and that all significantly interact with one another in various ways. The only variable which showed no effect was type of writing, i. e., there was no significant difference in quality between the hiragana and the Roman figures. In general, there was steady progress for both sexes. The mean for the 2 year old group=1.85, for the 3 year olds=2.22, for the 4 year olds=3.40, for the 5 year olds=4.09 and for the 6 year olds= 4.57. The greatest and most important gain occurred between ages 3 and 4 years. The females did significantly better than the males, especially at the older ages. Such a finding is in agreement with other writing research, where boys may sometimes equal the performance of girls but they never exceed them. Surprisingly, the smaller size figures received higher scores than the larger size ones in both types of task. This finding challenges the generally held assumption that larger figures are easier to form. Possibly, the larger figures require more control, e. g., it seems more, difficult to draw a long straight line or a long curved line than a short one. With regard to type of task, the results, not unsurprisingly, show performance on the tracing task to be better. Because at 2 years of age the children's writing was largely unidentifiable, and by 4 years it was quite identifiable, it is concluded that the critical age for children learning to write is 3 years. Thus, it appears that writing instruction would benefit 3 year olds and perhaps 2 year olds as well.