Aim: The aim of the following study is to find out the patterns of utterance relation among teacher (T) and children (C). Classiication of utterance Utterance relation is classified by combination of a teacher's utterance and children's utterance. 1. A teacher's utterance is classified into the three types,‘weak’,‘medium’, and ‘strong’, based on the strength of his ‘Lead’. 1. 1. Lead: weak-T understands C's utterance and behavior and accepts them. 1. 1. 1. Silence: T doesn't utter. 1. 1. 2. Acceptance: T accepts C's utterance and behavior without any criticism, in consideration of C's thought and feelings. 1. 1. 3. Clarification: T clarifies the meaning of C's utterance, by adding his comments. 1. 2. Lead: medium-T tries to talk C into doing the action, though the direction of C's action can be chosen by C. 1. 2. 1. Praise, Encouragement: T approves of a direction of C's own choice and encourages C to act in that direction. 1. 2. 2. Broad Question: T asks C to write down their opinions concerning the causes of an incident, how to solve questions. 1. 3. Lead: strong-T directs C's attention toward a specific direction and makes them act and think toward the direction. 1. 3. 1. Narrow Question: T asks elective questions, questions for confirmation, and questions for reproducing memory. 1. 3. 2. Information: T shows the teaching material by a story-telling, opinions and AV aids. 1. 3. 3. Requests and Commands: T gives requests and commands to read the teaching material, to solve problems, etc. 1. 3. 4. Criticism: T criticizes and rejects C's ideas, behavior or feelings. 1. 4. Others: Utterance not included in the above classification is classified in Others. 2. C's utterance is classified into the three types by strength of spontaneity. 2. 1. Spontaneity: weak 2. 1. 1. Silence: C don't utter. 2. 1. 2. Simple Answer: C answer in a simple way, induced by T's or C's questions. 2. 2. Spontaneity: medium-C answer in detail, induced by T's or C's questions. 2. 3. Spontaneity: strong-take positive part in the process of teaching-learning. Questions and answers begin, continue and develop by C. 2. 3. 1. Spontaneous Utterance: C explain, adding thin own opinion different from other children's and expression not found in the teaching material. 2. 3. 2. Questions, Requests, Nomination: C ask T or other children questions, requests, and have other children to answer. 2. 4. Others: Utterance which is not included in the above classification is classified in Others. Methcd of Analysis The recorded narrative in instruction is divided into segments. Each of these segments is classified from the points of topics, changing of problems, C's activity, etc. Each segment of utterance is classified into types described above and the patterns of utterance relation are extracted. Results The results of analyzing 62 pieces of instruction for children are as follows. 1. Lecture Type (T: strong, C: weak) There's a lot of talk by T. T's narrow questions and C's simple answers are included several times. 2. Narrow Question Type (T: strong, C: weak) T's narrow questions and C's simple answers and T's clarification are repeated. 3. Broad Question Type (T: medium, C: medium) C's answers in detail to T's broad questions and T's clarifications are repeated. 4. Chairmanship Type (T: medium, C: medium) T asks broad questions and has C tc answer them by calling C's name. This type is different from Broad Question Type: T doesn't add clarification or explanation after having listened to C's opinion. 5. Controlled Discussion Type (T: medium, C: strong) T gives a subject for discussion and C discuss it. T decides the subject and makes a summary of it and explains the pattern for discussion and controls it.
The aims of our follow up observational study were to clarify the transition from pre-linguistic com-munication to early language and to show how dependent the development of verbal behaviour was upon the nature of the interaction taking place between mother and child from the early months. Over a 22-month period fortnightly observations were made of 8 mothers and their firstborn children (2-23 months old) as they interacted at home, in natural and in semistructured situations. Maternal and child behaviours were recorded by time-sampling method on the observation checklist consisting of 40 maternal and 65 child categories of behaviour. In the present paper, part of this comprehensive sampling was analyzed in terms of (a) frequency of child vocalizations (FIG. 1), gaze (FIG. 2) and facial or gestural communications (FIG. 3),(b) co-occurr-ence of maternal or child categories of behaviour with child vocalizations, i. e. crying, negative vocalization (TABLE 3), babbling (TABLE 4), pre-speech and speech (TABLE 5). It was demonstrated that child speech exhibited after 16 months of age, turntaking (alternation) with his mother; whereas it was only at the age of 22-23 months that pre-speech being also an intentional vocalization, exhibited alternation pattern instead of previous coaction pattern. As for babbling, it revealed that it had two functions, i. e. play by oneself and expression of pleasure. The latter exhibited coaction pattern at 2-5 months of age, and the alternation pattern occured after 6 months. On the other hand, crying and negative vocalization exhibited only coaction pattern (2-19 months).