The aim of this study is to find out which one of the following two different techniques is more effective to produce the desirable structural change of the small group of children in which an egocentric and autocratic leader exercises influnece. Procedure: (1) The subjects of this experiment were 36 school children of the fourth-year-class who were divided into 9 groups of 4 each. One of the 4 members of each group was the above-mentioned leader. Of the 9 groups, 4 were the 1st experimental groups, one was the control group and the other 4 were the 2nd experimental groups. (2) Members of each group were asked to rank 5 socially good conducts in their own individual orders of preference. Group rankings were then formulated. A final ranking was then Secured from each individual. At the end of the 1st day experiment the experimenter explained to the leaders of the 1st experimental groups the ideal way of the democratic management of a group (the 1st technique). Whereas each leader of the 2nd experimental groups was made to observe members of a democratic group discussing with one another (the 2nd technique). This democratic group was composed of 4 children of the fourth-year-class. (3) Twenty-four hours later members of each group were asked to rank 5 socially wrong conducts in their own individual orders of preference. Group rankings were then formulated. A final ranking was then secured from each individual. (4) A couple of weeks later the same procedure as (3) was, repeated. Result: (1) On the 1st day followers of both experimental groups were likely to withstand the impact of group opinion under autocratic leadership, which probably indicates that no strong group opinion was formed under this condition. (2) On the 2nd day the final rankings of the followers were found to agree with group rankings on the whole. The difference between the final rankings of the followers and final rankings of their own on the 2nd day was found to be greater than that of the 1st day, which probably was due to the fact that they had been much more content with and influenced by the group rankings. The important fact is that the degree of the above-stated agreement and the difference was higher in the 1st experimental groups than in the 2nd experimental groups. (3) On the 15th day the 1st experimental groups showed almost the same tendencies as on the 1st day in their initial, group and final rankings. On the other hand from the results of the initial, group and final rankings of the 2nd esperimental groups, tendencies similar to those found in the results of the rankings of the 2nd day could be seen. Conclusion: The results show that on the 2nd day the 1st technique was more effective than the 2nd one as a technique for effecting changes in attitudes but that on the 15th day the effect of the 1st one vanished the effect of the 2nd one remaining almost as before.
The object of this study is to analyze the effects of the special individual guidance of the little children with mental and emotional handicaps. The subjects of this study were 18 children of the Hokudai Yojien' (Hokkaido University Kindergarten). They were divided into 2 groups, experimental and control. To the experimental group, special individual guidance was given for a month during the summer vacation. Some of the facts found out by this study are as follows: (1) Conspicuous effect of the individual guidance could not be recognized as a whole. (2) The individual guidance had no effect on the intellectual development of the children with handicaps, having some effect on their behavior and attitude. (3) The development of the manual and occupational ability was very remarkable in the experimental group, but concerning the total scores of social maturity test given to both groups before and after the experiment, the increase of the score in the control group was significantly higher than in the experimental group. This shows that the modification of the program of the individual guidance is necessary.
PALT II As reported in part I, we found by the follow up study several factors of the life history, which have influence on the prognosis. In this part, the relation between the prognosis and some personality traits was studied by the interview and the tests. First, six personality traits measured by the interview were analized. Of these, three were concerned with the abnormality of the intention, of motivation and of suppression. The remaining three were concerned with the other abnormalities. All these six traits. were related with the prognosis (Tables 1-6). Examining these relations more closely, we could classify personality patterns into five classes which effectively predict the prognosis (Table 9). Secondly, as to the Kraepelin's curve, we found that both quantity and pattern of the achievement predict to some extent the prognosis (Tables 10, 11). Analysing the pattern more closely, we found the initial spurt after the rest, the effect of the rest and the number of the droppings to be the factors predicting the prognosis (Table 12). Through these three factors and the quantity of the performance, we could classify Kraepelin's curve into several classes which effectively predict the prognosis (Table 13). Thirdly, we studied the ralation between IQ and the prognosis and that between VQ and the prognosis, and found that has a little influence upon the prognosis (Table 15), but as to VQ, no significant result was obtained (Table 16). Summarizing the above results, we can conclude as follows. The personality pattern (shown by the function of will) and the Kraepelin's curve are related closely to each other, and both have some prognostic value (Table 14). The relations of the personality pattern and Kraepelin's curve to the prognosis correspond to the relation between the prognosis and the life history factors, which was already discussed in part 1 (Table 17). PART III We further investigated the factors concerning the environment and those concerning the relation between personality and the environment. We found that the loss of one or other parents seems to have no influence on the prognosis,(Tables 18, 19), and that such factors as the antisocial atmosphere in the family, the home conflict and the association with gangs do have a bad influence on the prognosis (Tables 22, 23, 24). Considering the relations between each of these three factors and the prognosis with regard to the relation between the various factors and the prognosis described in Parts I and II only the association with gangs was found to be a self supporting factor predicting the prognosis. PART IV Bodily characteristics such as height and weight have no relation to the prognosis. As to the legal pattern of the main delinquency no definite result was ontained (Table 25) As the results of the follow-up study described in Parts I to 7, we have found various personality factors predicting the prognosis. Discussing the various relations mentioned above, some relations between the factors and the prognosis can be considered to be included in a more extensive relation. In the following report these results will be summanarized with the consideration of their significance, and the relation between the social-psycho-logical pattern of the delinquency and the prognosis will finally be discussed.