A. THE FOURTH RESEARCH 1. The purpose of this study is to make the tentative recording form, which the author proposed in 1953, available for practical use in evaluation at schools. This study also aims to explore more fully the experiences of evaluation carried on the form. a. At first, the author wrote “Manual of Direction” for evaluation. Attached to this manual are two “Term Tables” which might be helpful for teachers in recording pupils' personality traits. b. The author then sent his tentative evluation forms and “Manual of Direction” to the teachers of elementary schools in various communities (90 teachers of 25 schools in Osaka, Hyogo, Miyagi Prefectures and Kyoto City), asking them to select two pupils at random from his class, and to evaluate them according to the direction given in the manual. c. The author then asked several questions on the the experiences of evaluation. 2. The author received evaluation sheets on 180 pupils, filled out by the teachers. The questions asked of these teachers were as follows: 1) Which is easier to record evaluation, this form or any other form? 2) Is the “Term Table for Immediate Impression” useful in recording evaluation? 3) Is the “Term Table for Behavior Pattern” useful in recording evaluation? 4) Do you discriminate (distinguish) “Immediate Impression” with (from) “Behavior Pattern” in evaluation? 5) Can you rate “Behavior Pattern” at the fourth grade scale in accordance with the direction of the manual? From the answers to the above questions, it was indicated that the tentative form was superior to other forms in that it was more convenient for recording and could give more valid figures of overall personality. B. THE FIFTH RESEARCH 1. The author sent questionnairs on his basic ideas of personality evaluation to various educational psychologists in Japan, asking them to send him their opinions. He received answers from 26 psychologists, which proved valuable in the study. Following are the questions and the response: 2. a) Question # 1: The author categorized three personality evaluation items: 1) immediate impression 2) behavior pattern. immediately appreciated 3) behavior pattern on intensive observation He then asked whether these items may be clearly distinguished from each other in evaluation. Approximately half of the psychologists supported the author's point of view; Some were critical of it. b) Question # 2: “Do you think the Term Tables are helpful in recording evaluation?” Almost all answered in the affirmative; some pointed out the need for better systematization. c) Question # 3: The author selected seven personality trait items as being essential: raining, sociability, self-control, thinking, emotional stability and sincerity.“Do you think these seven items are essential to personality evaluation?” Some answered in the affirmative; some others were critical and gave their own opinions. As a result of the above study, the author now understands the extreme difficulty of the problem and that, fundamentally, it depends greatly on the obtject of education.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between goal setting behavior observed in level of aspiration situations and tendency to resume interrupted tasks. Subjects: The subjects were 32 boys selected from a class of first year in a middle school. Procedure: Subjects were observed in two different situations, A and B. In situation A, each subject was led into an experimental room and instructed to answer 20 questions of mathematics, and he was asked to estimate how fast he expect to finish his task. When he finished his task he was informed his time. And the next trial began. When 14 successive trials were given, the subject was asked to stop and to answer to a personality inventory. Then the experimenter went out of the room and observed through a one mirror. In situation B procedures were the same except that the experimenter remained in the room throughout the whole experiment. Results: According to Sears and Roder, 6 groups of typical behavioral pattern were distinguished in goal setting situations. Subjects who showed unstable or low positive or rigid pattern had no tendency to resume the incomplete tasks. Those who raised their aspiration level stepwise resumed the interrupted tasks. This finding may be explained by our hypothesis those who have high motivation but are frustrated by their failure tend to set unrealistic goal and to resume their tasks, because the tension is not released. In the present study relationships between the hight of goal-level setting and certain personality variables were analysed. Subjects were divided into 4 groups according to their G. D. score. Positive G. D. score groups were extravert and negative score groups were introvert.(p<05 by x2-test) Mean intelligence score of +L group was the highest, and -L group was the second, and -H group was the third.(p<.05 by F test) In neurotic tendency, there were significant differences among 4 groups.(p<.05 by F test) The order of neurotic tendency among groups were the same as in intelligence score.
It is not long since clinical psychology became a popular subject of study in Japan. Therefore, studies on the method of diagnosing and treating the patients have not been sufficiently made. The writer of this article wants to comment on methodology of clinical psychology. 1. Needless to say, clinical psychology aims to treat and cure the patients. Its practice calls for specific techniques as well as careful examination of general (or theoretical) psychology. 2.“To diagnose” means to detect the cause of the illness for treatment. To give correct diagnosis, clinicians should be versed with Jaspers' theory of method. Jaspers contends that it is most important in psychopathological studies to apply understanding (verstehende) psychology and explaining (erklaerende) psychology independently. 3. There are three methods in psychotherapy: namely, directive, non-directive and psychoanalytic. Only in actual practice, should one decide which of the three methods is desirable.