The purpose of this study was to find the clue clarifying the acquistion process of the JOSHI (particles). This was done by analyzing the difficulty in the JOSHI GA and O acquired by comparing the kind of sentences using JOSHI. The subjects were 80 normal children with a vocabulary age between 4:0 and 7:11. In order to test the subjects' ability to use JOSHI, 33 incomplete sentences without JOSHI were presented to them using a taperecorder and picture cards. Then, they were asked to repeat while completing the sentence after listening to each incomplete sentence. The results of this experiment might be summarized as follows: 1. The children with a vocabulary age between 7:0 and 7:11could use “GA” and “O” almost perfectly. 2. The ability to use “GA” was acquired earlier than the ability to use “O”. 3. The child not knowing the accurate meaning of “GA” and “O” had a trend to use “GA”. 4. The dificulty to use “GA” depended on a) whether the sentence described the situation that could be described by other similar sentences or not. b) what the kind of noun used as the subject in the sentence. c) whether the intransitive verb requiring the use of “GA” had a corresponding transitive verb or not. 5. The difficulty to use “O” depending on whether the sentence would be a reversal or nonreversal sentence.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate on what experimental condition visual imagery ability could successfully predict the subject's performance in memory task. To attain this goal the imagery ability of individual subject was measured by the use of VVIQ, the following three factors were varied in associative memory task. The first factor was the difficulty in associating stimulus term with response one. It was controled by varying the number of response terms, one (in Exp. 1) or two (in Exp. 2). The second was the kind of memory task such as short or long term recall. The former was an immediate recall of response items, while the other was an unexpected free recall in which the subjects were asked to recall both stimulus and response items 30 minutes later after short term recall. The third was the image-arousing p otential of material. That potential was defined as the integrated imagery value (high or low) which was the vividness of imagery constructed of pair (in Exp. 1) or triplet (in Exp. 2) of words. Prior to two experiments 30 undergraduate sudents completed the VVIQ, and were divided into two homogeneous groups of 15 subjects on the basis of their VVIQ scores. The one group took part in Exp. 1, and the other in Exp. 2. The subjects in Exp. 1 and 2 were together instructed to relate the stimulus term with the response one and construct the integrated imagery. The subjects had no prior experience of imagery experiment, and their VVIQ scores were unknown to the experimenter to exclude the influence of demand characteristics. After each experiment the 7 lowest and the 7 highest scores of VVIQ were selected as “good” and “poor” imagers respectively. The basic data were the number of total words recalled by each subject. In each experiment a 2×2×2 (imagery ability, integrated imagery value, and trial) and a 2×2 (imagery ability and integrated imagery value) analysis of variance were applied to short and long term recall data respectively. The integrated imagery value and the trial were repeated measures. Main results and conclusion were as fol lows: a) The high imagery material (H set) was superior in the number of recalled words to the low imagery material (L set) on both short and long term recall in Exp. 1 and 2. b) The short term recall was improved on thesecond trial over the first trial in both Exp. 1 and 2 (FIG. 1 and 3). c) The imagery ability x integrated imagery value interaction was significant on long term recall in Exp. 2, indicating that H set was remembered better than L set in poor imagers and the difference between H and L sets was not found in good imagers (FIG. 4). This result suggested that good imagers could be successful in equally transferring H and L sets to long term store (LTS) by sufficient imaginal coding, and poor imagers failed in transferring L set to LTS in contrast to H set. On short term recall in Exp. 2, the same interaction was found at the second trial (FIG. 3). In the secondtrial most of recalled words were probably retrieved from LTS, because the materials to be learned were identical with those of the first trial. Consequently the interaction may be interpreted as caused by the same mechanism in long term recall. From the above results, it is implied that the imagery ability might be successful in predicting the subject's performance in recall of L set constructed of triplets of words from LTS. That implication supported the following result. d) There was a positive significant correlation between the subject's imagery ability and the number of words recalled from L set on long term recall in Exp. 2 (FIG. 5).
The purpose of the present study was to test the predictions derived from Semantic Feature Hypothesis concerning the acquisition of spatial adjective pairs and to discuss the formational processes of semantic space. The subjects were 30 children attending a nursery school in Sendai. According to their ages, they were divided into three groups of 10 each. The mean age for each group was 4; 0, 5; 1, 6; 1, respectively. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, the Ss were presented with 10 spatial adjectives and asked to give their opposites. The 10 adjectives used were big/small, long/short, tall/short, thick/ thin, and wide/narrow. In experiment 2, the Ss were shown a set of four wooden blocks and asked to choose the-one, where the blank was filled with one of the following 6 words: longest/shortest, tallest/shortest, thickest/thinnest. The main results were as follows. (1) The children were aware that a word belonged to a particular semantic space before they had learned the full meaning of the word. (2) “Big/small dimension” was acquired prior to other dimensions. When the children did not know well more restricted adjectives, they tended to substitute “big/small” for them. (3) Unmarked words were acquired no later than marked words. (4) The children of 4 years old tended to regard marked words as complementary sets of unmarked words and the children of 5 years old tended to regard them as being below the average in the relevant dimensions.
In the present study I examined the planned organization of discourse in children's reporting situations. The observational setting was programmed along the curriculums in a nursery school, where each child reported to the other classmates and the teachers what he had done the previous day. Over 7 months, 123 cases from 3 to 6 year-oldchildren were observed and recorded. It was assumed in the model that the planning in the report had three sub-steps...first, a child had to choose a topic as a theme of discourse; second, he had to choose some events under such topic, and third, he had to add some details. The model also assumed the existence of not only the events verbally described, but also the topics being psychological units for the child. Purposes of the study were (1) to analyze the discourse structure and to make its developmental changes clear,(2) to show the existence of editing process in the level of discourse, and (3) to consider the role of the teacher's help. Main findings were as follows. First, through the event-based analysis (TABLE 4) the developmental changes in the discourse structure could not be made clear (TABLE 5-A, B). The hierarchical organization, which included both events and topics, produced clear developmental trends (TABLE 6, 7, FIG. 3). Second, the “link-unit” in hesitation phenomenon reflected the editing, not on the level of words or syntax, but on the level of discourse (TABLE 8, FIG. 4). From both the analysis of the discourse structure and the editing process, it was suggested that the development of the planned organization was a necessary part in the development of spoken language. Third, the help of a teacher took an important role in the transition from the simple structure to the structure directed by the “space” relation (TABLE 9). When the child reported without teacher's help, the hesitation phenomena occurred more frequently (TABLE 10-A, B). In this situation children might internalize the teacher's help and learn how to plan the discourse. This suggested the working of the zone of proximal development by L. S. Vygotsuky.