The present study was to investigate the influences of teacher expectation and authoritarianism on their attributions of causality for pupils performances. Subjects were twenty-four school teachers (15 males and 9 females). Half of them were assigned to a high authoritarian group, and the others to a low authoritarian group, based on their self-rating scores on reconstructed authoritarian personality scales. All teachers were interviewed as to their expecta tions for each of their pupils. At the same time, a standardized arithmetic test was administered to all the pupils in their classrooms. Considering the interview data, 2 pupils with positive expectation ratings and 2 pupils with negative expectation ratings were selected in each class as the targets for this experiment. Selected pupils were assigned to one of four conditions on the basis of both their performances on the arithmetic test and the direction of teacher expectation, i. e. positive expectation-high performance, positive expectation-low performance, negative expectation-high performance, and negative expectation-low performance. Teachers were informed of all targets test performances, and were then asked to rate the effects of causal factors (ability, effort, test difficulty, and luck) on pupils performances, using 7-point scales. Resultant findings: (1) Teachers tended to attribute high performances by positive-expectation pupils to internal factors much more than those of negative-expectation pupils, and low performances by positive-expectation pupils to external factors much more than those of negativeexpectation pupils. That is, pupils performances were attributed in the direction of confirming teachers preestablished expectations. (2) It was partly found that the relation between teacher expectation and causal attribution for pupils performances was influenced by teacher's authoritarianism. That is, high authoritarian teachers tended to attribute the causality for pupils performances in the direction of confirming teachers; preestablished expectations more strongly than did low authoritarian teachers. These findings were discussed from the viewpoint of teacher expectation effects.
This research aims at examining the hypothesis that early school age children (usually before 9 years old) can t differentiate & oppose judging standpoints with one another in quantity judgement. Three kinds of tasks were given to first, third and fifth graders. They were requested to make quantity judgement to materials with plural standpoints to answer. But, they didn t get any specification on judging standpoint. Each task was composed of five trials of similar construction. In the clay task the differentiation of number and volume was the subject. For example, three small and two large clay balls were presented. In the wood task the differentiation of thickness, volume, and length was the subject. A thick but short piece of wood, a long but thin piece, and a piece of middle length and thickness but of maximum volume were presented. In the picture task the differentiation of the number of individuals and units was the subject. A picture, for example, of four pots with two flowers in each was presented. As was expected, many questions were asked all considered on the judging standpoint, like “which do you mean, the number or the volume?”. The analysis of questions suggested that children asking such questions could differentiate the different dimensions as judging standpoints, and oppose them mentally. Almost none of the first graders made such questions in either task. They showed a tendency to make quick judgement on a certain standpoint without wavering. They also explained the reason of heir answer without any slightest embarrassment, tand didn t express their own judging standpoint in words. Third and fifth graders showed a different tendency according to the task. In the clay and wood tasks a few children asked questions while some others made judgements with long response wavering from one judging standpoint to another. In the picture task the agitation of their standpoint may easily develop into differentiating even opposing their judging standpoints. On account of this, in the picture task most children (the fifth graders) asked questions while others kept making judement on a particular judging standpoint with short response time. The results described above made possible the presentation of a hypothesis that in the school age the ability of differentiating & opposing judging standpoints with each other develops gradually.
For the design of individual instructional treatment, the roles played by learning styles on teaching/ learning process were discussed. The research method was not based on the model of a traditional experimental design, but by action research approaches for analyzing performance occurring in real world-learning process. Subjects were undergraduate students majoring in engineering; the learning style inventory developed by Okamoto, T.(1979) was used in order to investigate their learning styles. The main purposes of the present study were to specify the following three points. 1) To survey and arrange theoretical and practical studies on learning styles. 2) To analyze CAI-learning behaviors through three parameters (m, τ, to) of Weibull distribution and to estimate learning styles. 3) To examine and discuss the relation between learning styles and learning strategies in problem solving situations. The main results of this research were as follows. 1) On the estimation of three parameters (m, τ, to) of Weibull distribution, the values of m and τ were the largest in the group of holist, observing reflectiveness, and then trial-and-error practice. The descending order of the to value was also in observing reflectiveness, holist, and trialand-error practice. 2) In the behaviors of solving the state-space problem in regard to network-graph, the qualitative validity of this conceptual definition of learning styles was verified.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the developmental process of self-presentation in children on the basis of its relation to the development of cognition of evaluation (which the target person of the self-presentation (TP) held toward the presenter) and to the development of social approval need. Ss were second, third, and fifth grade elementary school children. In order to investigate the above problem, the following four studies were conducted. In study I, we investigated the development of cognition concerning the way in which the TP evaluated the presenters with different kinds of self-presentation. In study II, from the standpoint of age and sex, the dominance of ability aspects and personality aspects in social approval need were investigated. In study III and IV, we investigated the developmental process of self-presentation on one's actual ability. In study III, TPs were classmates who most frequently made contact with the Ss, and in study IV, TPs were university students who did not know the Ss at all. According to the results from study I-IV, we inferred the following developmental process concerning self-presentation in children. 1) Because even second grade children recognized that a self-deprecating presenter's personality was evaluated more highly than a self-enhancing presenter's personality, they could present themselves deprecatingly (modestly). 2) With an increase in the number of TPs whom third grade children were conscious of, they would learn to present themselves deprecatingly, not only to known TPs, but also to newly met TPs as well. 3) Moreover in the case of fifth grade girls, codnition which influenced self-presentation differentiated depending on the TP. That is, in case the TP knew them well they based their self-presentation on the TP's cognition about them, and in case the TP did not know them at all they presented themselves enhancingly in a way they could conceal their negative points.
This study examined the developmental process of the request-rejection in communication from the stage before the emergence of speech to the using of speech. My son Yukichi (Y.) was observed at home and his detailed dairy records were kept by his mother from his birth to 30 months of age, and 2700 cards concerning his development were analyzed. 1. The development of the media used for request-rejection When the communicative media used for a specific situation (e. g. feeding) were picked up, the following could be identified: crying→direct behavior (e. g. crawling away, sweeping hand movement) →gesture (e. g. head shaking)→speech (e. g. naei, naei meaning ‘No’). The earlier media did not decrease the significance of communication or were not replaced with the later media but were freely combined. The most complex combination occurred from 14 to 20 months of his age, and in this period, speech was no more than one of the various media. Following that period, speech began to play the most dominant role in his dairylife. 2. The relation between request-rejection and emergence of self-others differentiation By the end of the first year, Y. could use different media properly toward any person in his family, and at 14 months, he behaved himself like a rival as well as a playmate to his sister. At this stage, the acknowledgement of his “Tsumori (image of inten tion or plan)” began to take over the giving effect to his request. The emergence of emotion-cognition such as feelings of rivalry or co-operation with his sister seemed to be based on his differentiation of self-others and the beginning of “Tsumori”.