教育心理学研究
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30 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の15件中1~15を表示しています
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  • 速水 敏彦, 松田 敦子
    30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 165-174
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study intended to clarify developmental changes of causal schemata in ability and effort attributions of academic attainment, and to examine individual differences in the development of causal schemata by comparing underachievers and overachievers.
    In the first study, we made a pair comparison questionnaire designated as Inference Test consisting of three parts. First, the subjects were asked to infer academic attainments of two hypothetical persons described on the level of their abilities and efforts, and to indicate the one who would gain higher academic attainments. Second, the subjects were requested to answer which person would have higher ability after being given information on the level of academic attainment and effort of two hypothetical persons. Third, the subjects imagined two hypothetical persons reading information on the level of their academic attainment and ability, and were asked to infer which person would have made more effort.
    The subjects were 26 third graders, 27 fourth graders, 41 fifth graders and 40 sixth graders in an elementary school, and 66 university students as adults.
    Our analysis of the data led to the following results.
    1. Regarding with inference of academic attainment from ability and effort information, most of the third graders could use the so-called graded schema when they were given information on two persons of similar ability but different on effort. That is to say, they would believe the person making more effort would gain higher academic attainment. But two third of the third graders could not use the graded schema when shown information on two persons different on ability but equal on effort. 2. In the case of comparing two hypothetical persons' ability according to the given academic attainment and effort information, most of the fourth graders could use the magnitude covariation schema, which was confirmed by the positive relation between the given degrees of success and the inferred degrees of ability (or effort). Most of the third and fourth graders thought that, when two hypothetical persons performed equally well, the one who exerted more effort was also more capable. This could mean that the so-called hallo schema tended to be used. About 70 percent of all sixth graders, however, possessed the inverse compensation schema leading to the inference that, if an effect remained invariant, a change in the magnitude of one cause was accompanied by a compensating change in the magnitude of a second cause. 3. As for inferring effort from academic attainment and ability information, the magnitude-covariation schema was used by more than 80 percent of the third graders, with an inverse compensation schema emerging among the fourth and fifth graders. In general, the subjects could use more complex causal schemata when inferring effort than when inferring ability.
    In the second study, the subjects were underachievers and overachievers in a junior high school; the study aimed at comparing these two groups from a developmental standpoint of an inverse compensation schema.
    Another questionnaire like Inference Test was made asking the subjects the degree of one cause (i. e., ability or effort) about a hypothetical person having information on the level of academic attainment and other cause (i. e., effort or ability respectively). The data were analyzed separately in success and failure situations, classified on the basis of the level of academic attainment. In comparing overachievers and underachievers in relation to the use of the inverse compensation schema, the former could use the schema significantly more frequently than the latter when ability was inferred. This suggests that causal schemata in overachievers was more highly developed than in underachievers. When effort was inferred, however, the two groups were not different.
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  • 仲 真紀子, 無藤 隆, 藤谷 玲子
    30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 175-184
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究ではClark (1979) の枠組に沿って, 日本語における間接的要求の理解に関わる要因を調べた。
    方法は, 電話を通じて商店の店員 (被験者) 計587人に間接的要求 (例: 「閉店は何時か教えて頂けますか」) を行い, その反応を分析するというものである。
    その結果, まず, Clarkの挙げた以下の6つの基本的要因は, 日本語における間接的要求の理解にも関わっていることが確認された。
    1. 要求の手段 (例: 相手の意図を問う, 本人の要求を述べる) の慣習性。
    2. 表現形式 (例: 「…して頂けますか」) の慣習性。
    3. 字義的な意味への答え (例: 「…して頂けますか」を字義的な質問として受けとめた場合, その質問への答え) が, 話し手-聞き手間で明白ないし分かりきっている度合。
    4. 要求の内容が明示的に表現される度合。
    5. マーカー (「すみませんが」等) の存在。
    6. 話し手の目標や計画に関する先行情報や言葉の手がかり。
    さらに本研究では, 次の3つの事実が見出された。
    7. 聞き手は, 本人の既有の知識ないしそれに基づく期待を働かせながら, また, 話し手がもっているであろう知識や期待を考慮しながら, 要求を理解する。
    8. 要求文の字義的意味に応答することが社会的文脈にとって不適切である場合, その応答は避けられる傾向がある。
    9. マーカーは, 要求を伝わりやすくする効果と, 要求を丁寧にする効果をもつようである。要求を伝わりやすくする効果は, 要求文が非慣習的である場合, また, マーカーが文中についている場合に, 大きい。
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  • 無藤 隆
    30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 185-191
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    What properties does children's time concept have in the preschool age? Young children's time concept may include a concrete, sequential structure based on their everyday activities from morning to night. In this paper I examined the psycohological reality of that ‘life time ’ structure, utilizing theories and experimental paradigms of ‘script ’ research.
    In the 1st experiment, 35 young children (4; 4-6; 2) described their everyday activities. Fourteen main events were identified. These events might be regarded as core events of ‘ life time script ’.
    In the 2nd experiment using 32 four-and five-yearolds as subjects, first, the result of the 1st experiment was replicated. Second, the children told how “a friend in the same nursery school” spent his/her time from morning to night. The result was almost the same as when they described their own life, decreasing only in the number of described events. Third, the children were presented a simple story about everyday events. They recalled more script-based events and inferred more scriptally important events not actually presented in the original story.
    Fourty five four-to six-year-olds participated in the 3rd experiment. First, the result of the story realled in the 2nd experiment was replicated. Second, the children arranged in the right order, randomly presented, fifteen picture cards each depicting a main everyday event. The experimenter pointed the getting- out-of-bed card as a staring point in the first trial, and the going-to-nursery-school card in the second. The second trial was more difficult than the first. Older children arranged better than younger children in the second trial. Six-yean-old children performed almost parfectly.
    Through these experiments, the evidence was that young children structured their everyday activities according to ‘life time script ’. This life time script held several main events as core. These events had a certain sequential nature, especially cyclical, peculiar to time concept. It was also found that young children use the life time script in various inferences, for example, when they infer a friend's everyday life or recall a simple story concerning everyday events.
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  • 佐々木 正人
    30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 192-200
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study examined the effect of input modality in spatial transformation task. In a previous study (Sasaki, 1981), input modality had not affected the performance of perspective transformation in adult subjects; the present work was to analyse this modality effect developmentally.
    The two most important theoretical standpoints of the nature and the development of imagery have been advanced by Piaget & Inhelder (1966) and by Kosslyn (1978a, b).
    Piaget seemed to rule out the notion that images were derived from perception and developmentally it was operative aspect of cognition that produced changes in imagery.
    Kosslyn claimed imagery was a quasi-pictorial (perceptual) representation and suggested that young children tended to use imagery more than adults do.
    The former seemed to hypothesize that input modality did not affect spatial transformation in children while the latter considered this effect as probable. To clarify this theoretical problem was the second purpose of this experiment.
    Subjects were 119 children (57 boys and 62 girls) from 7 to 12 years old. The subjects at each age level were equally divided into two (only 7 years old) or three groups and assigned to one of the three input conditions: visual, haptic and verbal.
    In the first phase, subjects were presented with information about objects placed randomly on a board (FIG. 1). They identified those objects visually, haptically (touch and movement) and verbally. In haptic and verbal conditions, children were blindfolded. After a practice session with one object, the subjects were told to locate the position of the other three objects (simple reconstruction trials) and then, to imagine that he/she had moved to a position behind the other object and to make similar evaluation of the imagined position (perspective transformation trials).
    In simple reconstruction trials, a few differences were found. The difference of the three groups were no more than 10 degrees level (FIG. 2). But on perspective transformation trials, a highly significant interaction between age and input modality was found. The basic data were 12 angle setting produced by a subject in each of the mental manipulation tasks. These angle settings were converted into physical representations as FIG. 3. The number of triangles formed in the physical representation constructed from S's angle setting provided a global index of S's ability to manipulate mentally (FIG. 4).
    The second dependent measures were setting categories. There were 5 categories. 1) Correct: all settings were with in 10 degrees level. 2) Subcorrect: with in 30 degrees. 3) Degree error: degree error included over 30 degree error but positions of four objects were coordinated at last. 4) Position erro r: positions of four objects were uncoordinated and without any order. 5) Egocentric error. The proportions of each category with age in the input conditions shown in FIG. 5.
    These results suggested that there were developmental stage in the development of spatial transformation. This developmental stage was found in two dependent measures in the visual and haptic conditions, and response time (FIG. 6) in the verbal condition. And this developmental stage appeared at different ages in three input conditions. In visual condition, it was found at age 10 and at 11 in haptic condition.
    Hence, it may be concluded that:
    1. The development of spatial transformation depended on the changes of underlying cognitive structure.
    2. But being affected by the input modality, visual information had some superiority.
    3. Thus its development was well understood by the interaction of underlying cognitive structure and the information having visual or spatial mode.
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  • 佐藤 公治
    30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 201-210
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Attention is considered to be one of the main processes supporting human cognitive activity. Moreover, the ability to select critical or relevant information and ignore others is considered to be a condition for successful task performance, and is usually thought to be related to the executivefunctioning deterted after “the five to seven shift”.
    In Exp. 1, the attentional processes in Hagen's central-incidental learning tasks were analyzed by using eye-tracking data, which seemed to reflect attentional behavior more directly than memory performance data. The eye-movements of 72 children (kindergarteners: 21, 2nd graders: 25, 6th graders: 26) were recorded while working on the tasks. Results: (1) the number of fixations on the central atimuli in 2nd graders was significantly greater than the kindergarteners; (2) a significant decrease in the number of fixation shifts between the central and incidental stimuli as the age increased. Such results seemed to imply that sufficient attention allocation did not appear below 2nd grade. It was also observed that even the 6th graders who fixated least on incidental stimuli, still fixated at least twice on incidental stimuli. Therefore, to assume that some information processing entering the memory process had occurred during the fixation period was relevant. Susk observance implied that the recall performance measure alone did not completely reflect the attentional processes in the entering period.
    In Exp. 2, the recognition scores of the central and incidental stimuli of another group of subjects were compared with the obtained scores in Exp. 1. In the recognition test, all subjects in three age groups showed more than 50% of correct responses to the incidental stimuli. This result supported the assumption made in Exp. 1.
    Through the above experiments, it was suggested that information selection was carried out in two processing stages: first, attention was devoted to the input stimuli, then followed by selective memorization.
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  • 内田 伸子
    30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 211-222
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this research was to examine young children's psychological prosess during production stories.
    At first, two goals were studied in experiment I: the first goal was to find out what effects a story from the daily life or a fancy story, might have on the performance of story production ; the second goal was to clarify developmental changes in children's storyproduction. Eighty 4-year-old and 5-year -old children were divided into 2 homogeneous groups (20 Ss each) at each age level, and assigned to one of two conditions: i. e. a daily life story or a fancy story. Each child heard twice a story providing the information of settings and protagonist's goals, and was asked to complete the story. In order to collect adults' normative protocols, 185 college students were assigned to one of the two conditions randomly. Each story protocol was analyzed in terms of (1) the number of idea units,(2) the coherent connections between episodic chunks, and (3) the story structure according to the narrative categories (exposition, complication, or resolution) developed by Kintsch (1977).
    The main findings were as follows: First, in terms of consistence and coherence of the story structure, the performance of 4-year-old children were much poorer than 5-year-old children under a fancy story condition. Thus, the facility of production of stories seemed to depend on the function of available world and procedural knowledge acquired through experiences. Second, adults protocols of daily life stories were put into five types of story structures, and the fancy stories were divided into eight types. All types were identified in children's protocols and closely matched the adults data. But there were significant differences between children and adults, i. e. adults often produced complete structures made of more complex and elaborated episodes than children. These suggest that first, children have some foundamental logical structures from early childhood; second, the facility with which individuals can choose and use their knowledge on the world and itsprocess may increase the progress.
    Next, the two points were investigated in experiment II; the first point was to clarify how children organize stories, i. e. what strategies they use in story construction; the second point was to confirm the results of the experiment I. One hundred and twenty 4-year-old and 5-year-old children were divided into 3 homogeneous groups (20 Ss each) at each age level, and assigned to one of three conditions; H gr.(was presented ten sentences with a fancy story beginning and a happy endingsentence), U gr.(was presented the ten sentences and an unhappy endingsentence), and C gr.(was presented the ten sentencesonly). The task of H and U conditions was to complete the story byconnecting the beginning and the end, and that of C condition was to be the same as experiment I.
    The main results were as follows: First, 5-yearold children could complete coherent stories in any conditions, but 4-year-old children could not generate coherent stories under H and U conditions. This result was interpreted in terms of the development of planning competence in story construction, i. e. this suggests that 5-year-old children can use either global plot plan strategies or local plan (what-next) strategies, but 4-year-old cannot use plot plan strategies. Second, exclusive of uncodable protocols of 4-year-old, and other protocols were identified with eight types of story structures. This confirmed the second finding of experiment I.
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  • 豊田 弘司
    30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 223-226
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 金子 智栄子
    30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 227-232
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Weinerの原因帰属理論の立場から5 (課題場面) ×2 (P事態, N事態) ×4 (原因帰属要因) の観点を含む原因帰属の項目を作成し, 中学2年生に3段階のLikert法で評定させ, P事態とN事態の様々な課題場面での原因帰属の様相を調べた。因子分析の結果, P事態とN事態とでは内的帰属の仕方が異なり, 両事態ともに「外的帰属」, 「努力」, 「能力」と考えられる3因子が設定されることが明らかになった。内的-外的, 安定-不安定の関係を調べるために2
    因子問の相関を求めてみたところ, 同一事態内においては「外的」×「能力」に正の相関がみられ, 外的状況と能力の適合, 不適合が結果に影響すると考える傾向があることが見出された。異なる事態間においては, P事態の「外的」×N事態の「能力」, P事態の「能力」×N 事態の「外的」に非常に高い正の相関があり, 前者は自尊心の低さを, 後者は自尊心の高さをあらわしていると考えられた。
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  • 落合 良行
    30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 233-238
    公開日: 2013/02/19
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  • 久保 ゆかり
    30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 239-243
    公開日: 2013/02/19
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  • 金子 智栄子
    30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 244-249
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    従来の研究で努力帰属が必ずしも課題遂行水準の上昇をもたらさなかった一因は, 用いられた課題が主に注意集中型の努力を測定していたことにあると考えた。内田クレペリンの1桁の連続加算作業課題アナグラム課題数字と記号の置換課題といった比較的解決の容易な課題においては, 達成意欲と遂行に対する個人の課題への重要度の認知がともに高い場合, 事前テストで個人の遂行の上限に近い成績が得られ, その後のテストで遂行水準の上昇の見込みは少ないことが考えられる。これに対して方略試行の努力は, 達成意欲と重要度がともに高ければ, いかに問題を解くかという側面の向上を促進すると考えられる。
    方略試行型の努力は, Brunerらの焦点法を使用することにより課題解決が可能となる概念学習課題の遂行の場合にみられ, 注意集中型の努力は, 数字と記号の置換という単純作業課題の遂行水準にみられると考えた。小学校5年生46名 (男子21名, 女子25名) について, 成功失敗条件を一定にして課題を実施し, 重要度が高く, 両課題とも努力に帰属した13名, 運に帰属した10名を対象に, 2種の課題の遂行水準を分析した。
    概念学習課題の1課題を対象にして得点を与えていったところ, 努力と運の両帰属とも課題別に遂行水準の差はあらわれず, 努力要因に帰属した場合, 概念学習課題の遂行水準が上昇するという仮説は検証されなかった。そこで, 概念学習課題のブランク4試行を1組として得点を与えていったところ, 概念学習課題では努力要因に帰属すれば遂行水準が上昇し, 仮説をうらづける結果が得られた。課題間の関連性を調べたところ, 運要因では関連性がみられ, 努力要因では有意ではないが関連性のない傾向を示した。この結果は, 方略を試行するには注意の集中も必要であるためと考察した。
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  • 藤崎 真知代
    30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 250-256
    公開日: 2013/02/19
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  • 田中 宏二, 小川 一夫
    30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 257-262
    公開日: 2013/02/19
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  • 30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 264-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
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  • 30 巻 (1982) 3 号 p. 264a-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
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