The purpose of this study was to investigate distinctive natures of the mentally retarded children for acquisitional mechanisms of the eyelid conditioning, through the effects of US upon organisms. In equal-CA comparisons, fifteen mentally retarded children and normal children in the same junior high school were conditioned by CS as a light and US as an air puff: eyelid responses were recorded by the electromyogram. Results were as follows: (1) For CRs, in comparison with the normals the inferiority through the acquisitional period for the retarded children was suggested.(2) For URs, the retarded subjects did not form stable URs to the air puff in comparison with the normals. Then, to investigate the natures of the mentally retarded children in the acquisitional process of the eyelid conditioning, recordings for movements of the eyelid responses were analized. The main findings were as follows: (a) In the mentally retarded children, a marked trend was shown: the significant eyelid responses did not occur immediately from the onset of the US.(b) The lack of concentration in the CS for the mentally retarded children proved to be higher. Finally, the following points were discussed.(1) For two groups, the US did not produce the same effects on organisms [c. f., Results (a)].(2) Results (a) and (b) were factors regulating the occurences of CRs at a lower level.
The purpose of this study is to examine the validity of causal attribution model about academic achievement of elementary scool children. This model assumes the causal processes as follows: (1) attributional style (i. e. individual differences of causal attribution made in achievement-related situations) influences degree of perceived control each child has in such situations; (2) the degree of perceived control influences magnitude of achievement-related behaviors he/she takes (to be called behavior tendency); (3) the behavior tendency contributs to his/her level of achievement in school work. As a first research, a questionaire designed to measure attributional style was developed and administered to 245 elementary school pupils in fourth to sixth grade. By factor analysis eight factors were found, and the eight scales of these causal factors were set as a result. These scales were named as follows: “positive-effort (i. e. attribution to effort in positive situations (success))”,“negativeeffort (i. e. attribution to effort in negative situations (failure))”,“positive-ability”,“negative-ability”,“positive-mood,”“negative-mood”,“positive, negativetask (i. e. attribution to task in both positive and negative situations)”, and “positive, negative-chance”. As a second research, the survey utilizing the questionaire prepared in the first research and the new perceived control scale was administered to another 267 elementary school pupils in fourth to sixth grade. According to the model, regression analysis of causal paths was applied to the data obtaned in this survey and the pupils' behavior and academic records retained in the school. The validity of the model was mainly confirmed. It was found that among the scales of causal attribution, positive-effort, positive-ability and negativeability have explanatory power of accademic achievement. It is to be noted that sex differences about the causal paths were found. They were examined in terms of the differences of achievement goals held by boys and girls.