教育心理学研究
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31 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の16件中1~16を表示しています
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  • 蘭 千壽
    31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 102-112
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the jigsaw learning method on children's academic performance and learning attitude.
    The jigsaw learning requiring children to work together and mutually teach each other in order to have children depend on each other to accomplish their learning goals, used one of small group learning methods based on coopration and peer teaching. In this learning method, classroom children were divided into several jigsaw groups made of five or six children each. Each counterpart group composed of one child drawn from each jigsaw group was given one segment of the learning materials divided into as many parts as the number of counterpart groups (counterpart session). After learning of the counterpart session, children had to return to each jigsaw group and teach one another what they had learned, and hence they learned the total learning materials (jigsaw session).
    Subjects in the experiment were four hundred and fourty-one fourth, fifth and sixth graders. Subjects were divided at random into the four conditions as a unit of a classroom. The conditions used were as follows: At the first, the traditional whole-class learning method (control condition); second, the jigsaw method taken place for six or seven hours per week for six weeks (short condition); third, the jigsaw method for twelve weeks (long condition); and fourth, the jigsaw method for twelve weeks during which half the members of counterpart and jigsaw groups were changed at the beginning of the seven weeks (rotation condition). Jigsaw and counterpart groups were controlled in terms of sex, the relation of sociometric choice and degree of academic performance, respectively. To testify the jigsaw learning method, the subjects of national language and social studies were used.
    The results were as follows: (a) As concerns the academic performances of social studies, it was found that the children in short, long and rotation conditions showed significantly more improvement in the performances than did the children in the control one. In particular, the performances of children in rotation condition scored higher than those of children in short and long ones. Further, the performances of children with low performance of the first semester were higher than those of children in middle and high ones. About the academic performances of national language, however, there was no significance between the four conditions.(b) In terms of the frequencies of positive perception responses on the classroom teacher's leadership behavior, classroom children's and self's learning attitude, each positive perception responses about three measures in short, long and rotation conditions were observed more frequently than in the control one. The observed frequencies on each measure in the second session were significantly greater than in the first one. In addition to the above, we divided the positive perception responses on classroom children's and self's learning attitude into the positive learning attitude and the development of socialization responses according to the contents of positive perception responses. At the first and second sessions, the positive learning attitude responses of low performance children were observed more frequently than those of middle and high ones. In terms of the frequencies of development of socialization responses, the observed frequencies of middle performance children at the first session and those of high ones at the second session were significantly greater than those of low ones, respectively.
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  • 大野木 裕明
    31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 113-119
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    幼児の直接学習と観察学習における注意を比較するために, 2つの実験を実施した。注意を捉えるために, 学習課題の成績から推測する方法と学習課題への注視回数を評定する方法とを併用した。実験1では, 学習方法 (直接学習, 観察学習)×学習課題(中心的-偶発的記憶課題, 成素選択課題) の要因計画に幼児48人が割りつけられた。その結果, 注視回数得点は非常に高く, 各群間に差異は認められなかった。学習課題については, 成素選択課題群では, 動物図形得点の方が幾何学図形得点よりも多く, かつ, この得点差パターンは直接学習群と観察学習群とで類似していた。中心的-偶発的記憶課題群では, 直接学習群では中心学習 (幾何学図形得点による) の方が偶発学習 (動物図形得点による) よりも多かったが, 観察学習群では中心学習と偶発学習の間に差は認められなかった。以上のことから, 本研究で用いたような学習手がかりとしてドミナントでない方を中心刺激とする統合型中心的-偶発的記憶課題事態では, 直接学習と観察学習の得点差パターンは異なることが見出された。実験IIは, 実験Iの結果の再確認と注視回数測度の精密化を主目的として実施された。68人の幼児が, 学習方法 (直接学習, 観察学習)×妨害条件 (学習者の学習課題への注意をそらす条件の有無) の要因計画に参加した。注視回数について, 妨害条件は観察学習者の注視回数得点を低める効果を持ったが, 直接学習には影響を及ぼさなかった。学習課題について, 妨害なし条件では実験Iと同じく, 直接学習群では中心学習の方が偶発学習よりも多く, 観察学習群では中心学習と偶発学習の間に差は認められなかった。妨害条件では, 直接学習群も観察学習群も同様に, 中心学習と偶発学習の間に差が見出されなかった。
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  • 中山 勘次郎
    31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 120-128
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, it was assumed that motivational trait of children could be made of two kinds of orientation: social orientation and task-orientation. The social orientation was defined by a willingness to participate in socially visible works, whereeas the task-orientation was defined by an interest in the independent mastery and the challenge to the difficulty. The purpose of this study was to construct a scale to measure the relative intensity of these orientations, and to investigate how these orientations relate to the children's adjustment to various situations.
    In the first study, a scale (originally containing 24 items) measuring the two orientations was constructed and administered to 436 boys and girls from 4 th to 9 th grade. The results indicated that in both elementary school and secondary school, two factors were obtained and the factor structure was very similar in both schools. As expected, these factors corresponded to the social and task-orientation. Consequently, the scale was of 16 items (8 items in each orientation).
    Next, the developmental trends in each orientation were analysed. The social orientation decreased at the 8 th grade level, and temporally increased in 6th grade boys. As for the task-orientation, a decrease was observed in girls, especially on items measuring challenge.
    In the second study, the relationships of the two orientations in children's adjustment were investigated. The measures were sociometric test (choice of playmates and study-mates),“l'épreuve du dynamisme évolutif”, self-esteem scale, and academic achievement. 180 boys and girls in 4 th through 6 th grade were used as subjects, and were classified into four categories according to their relative intensity of the two orientations.
    Main results were as follows.
    1. In the sociometric status of each group, social orientation was related to the status in the choice of playmates, whereas both social and task-orientation were related to the status in the study-mates. Socially oriented groups showed relatively high rate of mutual choice.
    2. In l'épreuve du dynamisme évolutif and the selfesteem scale, the socially oriented groups rated their feeling of social adjustment higher, and preferred their own school age more than the less oriented groups.
    3. In the academic achievement, both orientations were related to some extent to their achievement in many school subjects. In general, the task-orientation had stronger relations; still, some characteristics in each subject were found.
    Some implications assuming two kinds of orientation (i. e. social and task-orientation) were discussed.
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  • 藤崎 真知代
    31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 129-140
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the mother-infant interaction process by the lag sequential analysis.
    The examination of the lag sequential relation between mother and infant behaviors was carried out using conditional probability. To compare the magnitude of concurrent mother's and infant's behaviors such as visual, tactile, and vocal behaviors, a new method using conditional frequency percentage as an index of the lag sequential analysis on mother-infant interaction was designed. By this method, the lag sequential relation between mother and infant behaviors for both one pair and several pairs could be examined.
    The subjects were 13 pairs of mother-infant aged 3 months, participating in ‘Tokyo Study Projects’. They were classified into two categories according to the degree of interactions, high activity group (7 pairs) and low activity group (6 pairs). One of the pairs belonging to the low activity group was subjected to the lag sequential analysis of mother-infant interaction at the age of 8, 12 months.
    The observational data on mother-infant interaction at each month (3, 8, 12 months) were obtained by home visits conducted as a part of ‘Tokyo Study Projects’ in 1977-1979.
    The main results were as follows.
    1) The lag sequential relations on visual and vocal behaviors between mother and infant were different from that of their tactile behaviors.
    2) In high activity pairs, following the initiation, the receptor tends to return and continue the same modal behavior.
    3) In the low activity pairs, the receptor tends to return but soon stop the behavior.
    4) At 3 months, most of the mother-infant interactions were carried out through tactile behaviors.
    5) Although, at 3 months, mother's and infant's vocal behaviors didn't occur as many as their visual and tactile behaviors, active interactions between mother and infant followed their mutual vocal behaviors.
    6) The amount of mother-infant vocal interactions gradually increased during the first year of life and patterns of the lag sequential relations of these interactions differed also in each period (3, 8,12 months).
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  • 樋口 一辰, 鎌原 雅彦, 大塚 雄作
    31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 141-145
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 伊藤 裕子, 秋津 慶子
    31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 146-151
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    青年期における性役割認知の発達過程を明らかにすることを目的として, 青年前期から成人期までの男女800名を対象に, MHF scaleを用いて資料の分析, 検討を行った。結果は以下のようにまとめられる。
    1) 価値および期待にみられる成人同様の性役割のステレオタイプはすでに青年前期には獲得されていた。
    2) 学年が進むにつれて役割期待を性に型づけされた方向に認知するようになり, 特に大学生では同性役割が期待される以上に異性役割は忌避されるべきと認知している。
    3) 学年が進むにつれて性役割を識別的に捉えるようになるが, 性による役割期待の差異を強く意識し始めるのは高校段階で, それはまず同性役割から始まり, 次いで異性役割の識別へと移行する。
    4) 性役割観形成における発達的推移には性差がみられ, 男子が年齢上昇とともに男性役割の価値を高めていくのに対し, 女子では高校を境に転換がみられ, 女性役割から男性役割への価値の移行が生じている。
    5) そのため, 学年が進むにつれ男子が男性役割と女性役割の自己に占める価値を明瞭に峻別していくのに対し, 女子では男性役割, 女性役割の双方が自己の価値規範として受け入れられるようになる。
    6) しかし, 同時に男女ともHumanityを自己の役割に大きく組み込んでいくようになり, Humanityは両性にとって最も高い価値を占める。だがその価値および期待を認知するのは男子が女子より遅れる。
    7) 期待と自己とのズレは, 男子が年齢上昇とともに徐々に解消していくのに対し, 女子では逆に高校から大学にかけて大きくなり, 役割葛藤が生じていることを予想させる。
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  • 宮沢 紀江
    31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 152-156
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 下山 晴彦
    31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 157-162
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 牟田 悦子, 上野 一彦
    31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 163-170
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 永江 誠司
    31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 171-176
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 河野 義章
    31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 177-180
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    被験者の大学生が, VTRの画像を通じて, 算数の文章題を解いている小学生の学習行動を観察した。被験者は情報群と非情報群に分けられ, 情報群には, 児童の算数の学力の分布についての情報が与えられた。非言語的行動を手がかりとして, どれだけ学習行動の予測 (文章題に正解しているか否か) が正しくできるかを調べた。
    その結果, 情報の有無の主効果は認められなかったが, 高学力児の方が低学力児よりも正しく判断されること, および難問題の方が易問題よりも正しく判断されることが認められた。また情報の有無と学力の高低との間に, 交互作用が認められた。
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  • 31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 185-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 185a-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 185b-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
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  • 31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 185c-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
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  • 31 巻 (1983) 2 号 p. 185d-
    公開日: 2013/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
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