Many of the recent studies about deaf children were related to verbal and conceptual inability in learning and thinking. Recently, it was found that eye-movements reflect an inner process of cognitive development, and were considered as being an effective method of investigating the relationship of conceptual and perceptual behavior. The present study aimed at analyzing the characteristics of eye-movements at various age levels in perceptual tasks presented on a screen. The subjects were 32 deaf and 48 hearing children 7-19 years of age. The deaf group subjects were in a school for the deaf and had a loss greater than 80 dB in the better ear. The hearing group subjects were normal children in elementary, junior and senior high school. Each of the 19 stimuli consisted of two pictures containing six figural factors. The subjects were instructed to answer accurately as fast as they could whether two pictures were the “same” or “differ ent”. The eye-movement (numbers of fixation, total times of duration, duration of single fixation and number of shift) of the subjects were recorded by the corneal reflection method. The results were as follows. 1) Deaf group subjects were inferior to the normal groups in the number of fixation. 2) Deaf children spent more time during responses and used fixation of longer duration than did hearing children. 3) Deaf children did not shift left to right or right to left so often as hearing children. 4) Developmental differences were not found in deaf children. The pattern of eye-movement of youth in deaf groups was the same as the first, second and third grade of the elementary school in hearing groups. A summary of the quantitative differences in eyemovements between the two groups of subjects seemed to show that deaf children needed more time to process information and had not progressed normally through the developmental stages. Whereas, hearing children did not spend so much time to respond, and used more efficiently eye-movement technique. In general, deafness seemd to produce an intellectual inability when tests of language concepts were used. But, this study suggested that there were differences in perceptual and cognitive development of deaf children as compared to hearing children, and also individual differences in deaf children, especially, at higher age levels, proved to be accurate.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of attribution on donating behavior being one of the measures of the altruistic behavior. As the first research, a scale designed to measure attribution trait was developed and administered to 178 elementary school children in the sixth grade. By HAYASHI III analysis, two basic axes were found (see FIG. I). Therefore this result suggested that this scale had quite a simple structure and difference of attribution traits between negative and positive situations. The reliability and validity of this scale were high enough to measure attribution traits of children. As the pretest, the effect of attribution trait in total situations (which involve positive and negative situations) and outcome attribution on donating behavior were examined. Neither the main effect nor interaction effect of the two attribution variables were found by ANOVA. But the effect of attribution trait in its negative situations on donating behavior was suggested by reanalyzing the data informally. Then, the effect of attributional trait in negative situations and outcome attribution was examined. The main effect of attribution trait in negative situations on donating behavior was found (see FIG. 3). Therefore the findings in this study suggested that attribution trait in negative situations was qualitatively different from positive situations and that only the former influenced donating behavior
In order to investigate a rhythmic movement ability of mentally retarded children, temporal accuracy of tapping task and stepping task were measured. On the tapping test, subjects were required to tap a key on the table exactly to sound signals being presented at a fixed time interval (900 msec). Being performed with their forefinger, this task was categorized as fine motor movement. In contrast, the stepping test was categorized as gross motor movement. Subjects were required to step on a given plate exactly to the sound signals. The tempo of the signals was the same as the one on the tapping test. The temporal accuracy of each test was assessed on the basis of timing error to the correct tempo from polygraphic records of 30 repetitive tappings or steppings. The mentally retarded subjects were 36 males (ages, 7-19; IQs, below 75). Their performances on both tests were compared with those of normal children (571 males, ages, 5-17). The metally retarded children at all age levels showed significantly greater error values than the comparative children. In order to compare the groups, the error values were transformed into T scores, the norm being constructed from the mean and SD of the nonretarded group of the same age and sex. On the tapping test, mean error score of retarded children was 60.9, being significantly greater than that of normal children (50.0). On the stepping test, the retarded children also showed a significantly greater mean error score (75.1) than the nonretarded (50.0). Consequently, the ratio of the tapping to the stepping test scores for the retarded group was 1.23. The results suggested that the retarded children lagged behind on the gross motor movement. Such tendency was observed in all age groups and was conspicuous in younger groups. The results were disscussed in terms of abilities of time perception, effector anticipation and effector efficiency.
This study investigated developmental changes in strategies to determine a social preference order, given a set of individual preference orders. Experiment I examined how a social preference (decision as a group) was determined when each member's preference order was known. Seventy-four 5th graders and 86 undergraduates participated in this experiment. Subjects were shown patterns of individual preference orders of A, B, and C given by members of a group of three. One example is given below. _??_ The task was to decide upon a social preference order of three alternatives A, B, and C based on such preference order patterns. Experiment II aimed at examining more closely how children and undergraduates would make such decisions. Subjects were asked to describe in detail how they had decided such orders under two conditions. In PN (Positive-Negative) condition, each member's preference concerning the three alternatives were expressed as “Most desirable”,“Neutral”, and “Most undesirable”. In O (Order) condition, alternatives were all thought to be desirable, in a first, second, and third order. Seventy-two 5th graders, ninety 8th graders and eighty-six undergraduates participated in the experiment. The main results were as follows. 1. Majority of decisions made by subjects were consistent when patterns of the individual preference order given by three members were the same. 2. From analyzing subjects' own descriptions of the strategies of making decision, four underlying principles emerged:(1) minority-oriented majority rule (2) concession-oriented principle (3) majority rule (4) local majority rule. 3. While most of 5th graders adopted the local majority rule, 8th graders and undergraduates adopted the variety of principles. 4. As for 8th graders and undergraduates, the concession- oriented principle was adopted more often in the PN condition than in the O condition. Implications of these findings were discussed.
It has been widely reported that performance of the deaf differs from performance of the hearing in various memory tasks. However, it has been unclear under what condition the deaf show equal proficient performance, compared with the hearing. So, on the basis of the theory of A. L. Brown (1975), we attempted to identity the condition where memory performance of the deaf might not be deficient. The judgment of relative recency task was given to deaf and hearing subjects. Four groups of subjects took part in this experiment: deaf children, deaf adults, hearing children, and hearing adults. The procedure was as follows: A long sequence of pictures was presented to the subjects. The sequence consisted of 84 inspection items (72 to-be-tested items and 12 filler items) and 36 test items. Each test item contained two pictures, both of which had occurred previously as inspection items in the sequence. Whenever a test item was presented, the subjects were required to make a judgment on which test pair had been presented later. Two spacing variables were manipulated: Lag and Separation. Lag referred to the number of items intervening between the test item and the most recent inspection item of the test pair and separation referred to the number of items intervening between the first presentation of each of the test pair. The results might be summarized as follows: First, the analysis of the total correct responses revealed that compared to the results of A. L. Brown (1973), no developmental difference between children and adults was observed, and influence of hearing loss on the judgment task showed no significance, either. Second, separate ANOVA's were conducted on four groups of subjects with Lag and Separation as within-subjects factors. Some main effects for both of Lag and Separation in deaf adults, hearing adults, and hearing children were shown. The interaction between Lag and Separation was also significant in hearing children, but not in the remaining two groups. The analysis for deaf children showed that although there was a main effect for Lag, the main effect for Separation and the interaction between the two factors were not significant. The implications of these findings for deaf memory were discussed.