There exist a group of children among cerebral palsied ones whose profile of the WISC or the WAIS exhibits a remarkable dip in scaled score in the block-design subtests. The dip seems to suggest their inadequacy in mental operations of spatial representations, as compared with the scaled scores of the other subtests. The present experiment was designed to investigate what kind of mental operations are required to perform the block-design test and to examine in what operations those cerebral palsied children have difficulty. An original and eight modified tasks of the blockdesign subtest in the WAIS were administered to four such cerebral palsied children. The Eight modified tasks were as follows: visual choice of a model among serevral similar designs (task 2); reproduction of a design from a visual model which was presented in a life-sized demonstration card (task 3); reproduction in which a model was presented in a life-sized demonstration card with divisional lines to clarify the block elements in the design (task 4); reproduc-tion of a design, by employing flat blocks (task 5); painting a copy of a model (task 6); painting a clopy of a model whos elemental divisions were presented one at a time (task 7); reproduction in which a model was constructed of real cubic blocks (task 8); and reproduction of adesign after the experimenter demonstrated the same reproduction (task 9). The nine tasks involved six reproduction ones, and the six tasks were presupposed to be arranged orderly from more difficult to easier ones. It was found that the subjects often pass task 2 even when they fail in the original reproduction task, and that the subjects' reproduction improves in task 4 in most cases and somewhat improves in task 8 and task 5. These findings were considered in terms of the subjects'inadequacy in such internal operations as mental sectioning of a representation of a model and mental transformation between two and three dimensional representations.
The purpose of this study was to examine the mother's inhibiting or accelerating attitude toward the child when performing in a potentially dangerous situation. It was hypothesized that the mother's attitude might be decided by her cognition of her child's ability to behave with safety. Mothers and teachers of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children (n=512) were asked on the children's abilities and behavior characteristics being necessary to handle danger and behave with safety. The results were as follows. (1) The skills to perform in safety increase with age. (2) The degree of mother's prohibiting attitude toward her child does not change with increasing age. (3) The factors that determine the mother's attitude interact with the child's developing aspects of various abilities needed to behave with safety. Based on these results, we constructed a model that presented the factors influencing the mother's prohibiting or accelerating attitude toward the child (FIG.1). Further, a new perspective for concept of a developmental task may be presented here. The developmental task is not to be associated with beh-Rather, each child has his own developmental task avioral norms when he attempts to decrease the discrepancy between the meta-cognition of his abilities and the actual performance. It is suggested that the dynamism of mother-child interaction should be understood on this new concept of developmental task.
Two experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of semantic constraints of sentence contexts on the elaborative learning. In the first experiment 40 subjects (adults) were asked to rate whether the target word would fit into sentence frame with five point scales followed by an unexpected recalland recognition tests. Three types of sentence frame were used: Congruous-Interchangeable(CI), Congruous-Noninterchangeable(CN), and Incongruous(I). The target words fitted into CI and CN sentence frames, but did not into I sentence frames. In a CI sentence frame, both the target word and its associate fitted sensibly, whereas in a CN sentence frame the target word fitted sensibly but its associate did not. Recall performance was highest in a CN sentence frame followed a CI and a I sentence frame. False recognition scores to the associates were higher in CI sentence frames than in CN ones. These results were interpreted as showing that effective elaboration seemed to depend on the semantic constraints of sentence contexts embedding the target words. In the second experiment 29 second and 33 sixth graders were asked to answer orally whether the target word would fit into sentence frame followed by an unexpected recall and reccognition tests. CI and CN sentence frames led to a better recall than I ones, but the difference between the former two sentence frames was not observed. The difference of frequency of false recognitions to the asociates between CI and CN sentence frames was not observed. These results showed that school children would be unable to utilize a CN sentence frame for effective elaboration of target word. It was suggested that the ability of encoding target words with sentence contexts was critical to effective elaboration.