The present study examined the effects of a new mode of reinforcement, the ‘Alien’ mode of Reinforcement (AR), as compared to a External one (ER) and a double reinforcement (EAR). In Exp. I, 60 children and 30 adolescents were asked to perform high discrimination tasks under either of the 3 conditions mentioned above. Subjects were 3rd and 6th graders in a primary school and 3rd graders in a junior high school. In Exp. II, under the same 3 conditions as in Exp. I, a task of choosing one among four given words was administered to 72 adolescents belonging to 2nd grade in junior (J2) and senior high (H2) schools. While fairly stable effects were found in ER and EAR conditions, no significant effects of AR condition on learning were found except in H2 group of Exp. II. Taking account of the findings of Haruki, et al.(1979), AR seems to become fully effective, in developmental phase, somewhere between senior high school and university.
415 mothers were asked whether their children had specially beloved objects or not, its description and in what circumstances they would use the objects, and so on. 90 mothers answered that their children had some kind of “transitional objects” (Winnicott, 1953). Hayashi II's method was used in order to examine whether there was any difference between “primary and secondary transitional objects” (Stevenson, 1954). The results showed that “secondary transitional objects”. were used more as play objects than “primary transitional objects”. The second part of this study was to investigate whether children's possessing or not possessing the objects had relations to their mothers' attitude toward them. 43 mothers whose children possessed the objects and 97 mothers with children without objects were chosen and questioned on their attitude to their children. By ANOVA, it was shown that children's possessing or not the objects was related to their mothers' attitude toward them.
The purpose of this study was to examine the process of episodic understanding of information judged to be inconsistent. The first study examined the relation between information and episodes. The results showed that transforming information had effects on the distribution of the types of episodes. It was suggested that episodes were made so as to deny the first interpretation of information. The second study examined the effect of awareness of premises on the alteration of interpretation. The results showed that hint groups produced a greater variety of episodes and shorter responding time than non-hint groups. It was suggested that the awareness of premises improved the performance of altering interpretation. From these results, a hypothesis on the process of the alteration of interpretation may be recommended: i. e. an inconsistent information, first, after being aware of the tacit premises, then a subject doubts those premises, to finally resolve the conflict through constructing episodes denying such premises.
In a series of 3 studies, the ability of preschool children to describe the temporal or causal relationship in two events was examined using production as the response mode. Ss were asked to produce a story from two events; in a forward condition Ss were asked to describe them in time, and in a backward condition they were asked to describe them which involved a conflict between temporal succession and spatial arrays of cards. The results showed that the younger children had more difficulty with the production of temporal relationship in the backward condition, also three stages of production in the backward condition were found: first, children used an event-ordered strategy to describe temporal relationships; second, they used an event-ordered-changed strategy through reconstruction of representation; third, they used a backward strategy depending on such lexical knowledge as the relational term for describing backward relationship. The present investigation demonstrated that, contrary to current claims in literature, the expository skills of causal relationship possessed by children were, as yet, in the preoperational period.
Two studies were carried out to investigate the role of ‘point of view’ in a producing text through a ‘serial pictures method’. In study 1, technical school students were asked to write high efficient (communicative) stories corresponding to serial pictures divided into 4 parts. The result showed that text macrostructure did not necessarily have a consistent point of view. In study 2, technical school students were divided into two conditions corresponding to serial pictures (NO SUBJECT CONDITION/SUBJECT CONDITION) and were asked to write high efficient stories. When both condition groups were requested to refer to given and new informations, they preferred give ones as their point of view. When they were asked to refer only to new informations, they introduced given ones into their text making it their point of view. As predicted, the results indicate that a producer would prefer to let a receiver easily integrate new informations into a given textual world, while a point of view construction would be intimately relevant to an informational one.
This paper presents a set of data describing maternal perception of infant cries. One hundred females served as subjects. They formed the following five groups: (A) 20 mothers not currently pregnant; (B) 20pregnant mothers: (C) 20 nulliparous pregnant women without any professional experience with infants; (D) 20unmarried women with professional experience with infants, and (E) 20unmarried women without any professional experience with infants. The Semantic Differential technique was used to examine perceptual sensitivity to cries of healthy infants with a different amount of complications in their obstetric histories. The results showed that Group C could discriminate between cries of the low-and high-complication infants as well as Groups A and B, all three groups discriminating better than Groups D and E. These results were interpreted as an evidence that the ability to recognize the meanings of infant cries would come to exist among nulliparous women in their pregnant period.
The present study was designed to clarify the development of listener-oriented communication skills in children, specifically how children control and communicate redundant (unnecessary) information in referential communication tasks. Second, fourth and sixthgrade elementary school children communicated individually to both a seen and an unseen listener. Level of redundancy was determined using 2 criteria, i. e. whether information was verifiable or not, and whether it was available for discrimination. According to these criteria3levels were used for analysis: (1) verifiable-available (low redundancy),(2) verifiable-unavailable,(3) unverifiable-unavailable (high redundancy). The main findings for each school grade were as follows: (1) Sixth graders could control for unavailable information (level 2 and 3), but they tended to communicate low redundant verifiableavailable information.(2) Second graders did not change their message to the listener but the level of redundancy did change with the type of listener (seen/unseen).(3) Fourth graders could partially control high redundant unverifiable-unavailable information, but they tended to communicate verifiable information (level 1 and 2).
The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of prosocial moral judgments in Japanese children and adolescents. The prosocial moral-judgment assessment consisted of four moral dilemmas based on stories used in Eisenberg-Berg (1979) and designed to tap prosocial moral reasoning. One hundred and forty preschool, elementary, junior and senior-high school children were individually interviewed to assess their level of prosocial moral reasoning. The results in terms of prosocial moral judgments indicated that no clear age and sex differences were evident, and that most subjects judged prosocially to each dilemma. When prosocial moral reasonings were coded into moral consideration categories devised by Eisenberg-Berg, responses of older subjects tended to be in higher level of reasoning categories. In general, the number of subjects indicating higher level of prosocial moral reasoning appeared to increase with age. These results seemed to show that the developmental stages of prosocial moral judgments suggested by Eisenberg (1982) were also observed in Japanese children and adolescents.
The following experiment was conducted in order to establish the facilitating effects of some training procedure on children's bidimensional ordering. Fifty-four children, aged 65-77 months, were assigned for either experimental or control groups after a pretest. In the first half of the training session, the experimental group engaged in alining and then nesting three cylinders similar in height. The control group merely manipulated nine cylinders without provoking any special suggestions. In the second half of the session, both groups practiced ordering the nine cylinders concurrenty on width and height, while being given feedback by the experimenter. In this second half, it was also suggested to the experimental group that the cylinders should be arranged to facilitate nesting. The experimental group showed a more improved performance after the training than the control group. The results indicated that the experience of nesting the cylinders in advance induced children to voluntarily adopt some rational strategy for coping with the following bidimensional ordering task.
The purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of father's occupation on career choices of their children in connection with children's inheritance of their father's occupation. The subjects were children whose father's occupation has long been either school teacher (n=267), or college professor (n=363), or architect (n=153). The main results were as follows. 1) Compared with the ratios of eldest children choosing any of the three occupations mentioned above other than the father's, those entering the same as their father's weresignificantly high. 2) As for the environmental models as in Holland's theory, the relationships existing between father and son together with father and daughter, was related to his hypothesis. 3) Using the quantification method II as a method of determinant analysis in the process of occupational inheritance, parental expectation and identification, the age of a child and its educational background was found to contribute largely to decide upon its occupational inheritance.
The first purpose of the present study was to propose a measuring procedure of the macroscopic character of sociometric structure deduced from a graph theory called “sociometric condensation model”. In this model, the following five dimensions were proposed to identify the macroscopic structure: unity, centralization, polarization, hierarchism and density. The other purpose was to apply this model to classrooms and to investigate the relationship between the macroscopic character and pupils' school morales. Sociometric test and school morale questionaires were given to 31 classes in 5 elementary schools. The relationship between unity, centralization and hierarchism, and school morales was found.