The purposes of this study were to clarify the differences of retirement experience from the viewpoint of ego identity crisis and to investigate the factors related to them. In Study I, psychological influence of retirement and the way to deal with it were analyzed by giving the SCT to 220 men. The following seven Retirement Recognition Types were found: A: The Active-Welcomer, B ; The Passive-Welcomer, C: The Neutral, D: The Crisis, E: The Resignated, F: The Escaper and G: The Ambivalent. These seven types were classified into four Marcia (1964)'s Identity Statuses. In Study II, the correlation between the above statuses and 1. the achievement level of psychosocial tasks in Erikson (1950) and 2. the ego functions was investigated. It was clarified that The Identity Achiever (The Active-Welcomer) achieved psychosocial tasks better and had better functioned ego in comparison with the other statuses. These psychological traits implied the ability to recognize crises and the way to resolve them leading the “reorganization of ego identity”.
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the a daptation of Weiner's (1974) causal attribution model of motivation to a school setting. Ninety-five ou t of 157 upper secondary school students who had taken the examination in Japanese and a hundred who had taken the examination in mathematics regarded their results as worse than they had expected and expressed dissatisfaction with them. They served as subjects for a failure group. They made attributions for their failure, indicating the degree of affective reactions to failure, and rating their expectancy for success on the next peri - odical examinations. The scores of the following periodical examinations served as a performance measure. In accordance with Weiner's model, a path analysis was applied to the data obtained. The overall results of this study offer support for only part of Weiner's model. Moreover, the fact that this study was not conducted in an experimental setting but rather in a natural school setting may have influenced the results
To examine the relevancy between direct perception and prior experience in the development of object cognition, three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, six tasks which were combined with two delay time conditions (0 and 3 sec.) and three conditions of different spatial cues were administered to eight 8-month old babies, and the differences of the occurrence rate of AB error were compared. In Experiment 2, eight 8-month old babies were tested to see whether they had committed AB error in the case of their having passive search experience alone. In Experiment 3, twenty-two 13 to 21-month old babies were tested to investigate whether they had committed AB error and the residual responses similar to stage IV in the stage V task of doubled invisible displacement and the influence of spatial cue on those responses were examined. The main results showed that both direct perception and prior experience contributed to babies' cognition of objects and they were related to each other not only coordinatedly but also conflictingly, according to delayed time and the characteristics of spatial cue introduced.
This study investigated the effects of children's need for achievement and multiple modeling on children's self-reinforcement behavior A3x2x2 factorial design, with three modeling conditions, high or low n-ach and grades was used. The Ss were 132 third and fifth graders in a public elementary school. One-third of the Ss were exposed to a stringent-model adopting a high criterion for self-reinforcement, one-third to a lenientmodel adopting a low criterion for self-reinforcement and one-third to the above two models. The level of n-ach was determined by scores on TAT. The criteria adopted by the high n-ach children in the two-model condition were more lenient than those in the stringent-model condition and were more stringent than those in the lenient-model condition. The criteria adopted by low n-ach children were more lenient than those in the stringent-or the lenient-model condition. In the two-model condition, no significant grade differences were found in the mean number of self-administered reinforcers.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the retrieval speed of mental retardates in a constrained recall task. Eighteen retardates (Mean CA=17:10, Mean MA=9:1, Mean IQ=51) and eighteen equal MA non-retardates (MeanCA=9:3, Mean MA=9:11, Mean IQ=108) were asked to learn a list of twelve pictures from three taxonomic categories. After all pictures were presented in category block, subjects were required to recall them in a constrained method. Dependent variables were as follows: (1) Numbers of recalled items within categories; (2) RT, the time interval between experimenter's category instraction and subjects'first recall response; (3) WCI, the time interval between a recall response and the next one. The main results were: RT of retardates was longer than that of nonretardates; also, WCI showed similar results. Such results suggested that one of the cognitive deficits of retardates was in the difficulty of category access.
The present study measured children's emotional empathy appearing on their face, at the sight of a victim's distress and examined the relation of emotional empathy to a sharing behavior with the victim. Twenty fifth-grade children watched a videotape of a victim appealing for the damages of a disaster. While watching the videotape presentation, the observing subjects' facial expressions to the victim were videotaped unobtrusively. Subsequently, subjects had to play a game and then share the game sheet, which had to be exchanged for tokens later, towards either themselves or the victim whenever completed. The coding of facial expressions was based on MAX and AFFEX by Izard and his colleagues (1979, 1980). The results showed that the subjects who expressed emotional empathy significantly shared more game sheets with the victim than the other subjects. These results were discussed in relation to the usefulness of a measurement of emotional empathy based on facial expressions and on the hypothesis that empathy motivates altruistic behavior in children.
In some preceding studies, it has been reported that if a certain task would be considered as a kind of achievement test, then one's intrinsic motivation for the task would be undermined. This present study was conducted in order to examine the hypothesis that test anxiety was one of the main factors undermining intrinsic motivation. Male undergraduate subjects with high and low test anxiety were assigned for either no-test condition or test condition. In both conditions, subjects engaged in solving puzzles, and only the subjects in test condition, were told that the task was a kind of intelligence test. The results were: intrinsic motivation of high test anxious subjects did not differ significantly between conditions, while low test anxious subjects indicated significantly lower intrinsic motivation in test condition than in no-test condition. The hypothesis could not be testified, but the results were discussed from various angles with theoretical implications for cognitive evaluation theory.
A new piotorial scale of prceived competence and social acceptance for preschool age children according to Harter & Pike (1984) is givn below. This scale is for 5 and 6-year-old children and concerns four domains: cognitive competence, physical competence, peer acceptance, and maternal acceptace. Factor analyaes reveal a two-factor solution: the frsit factor, General Competence, is defined by the cognitive and physical competence subscales, as the second factor, Social Acceptance, constitutes the peer and maternal acceptance subscales. The psychometric properties are found to be acceptable. High scores of both the cognitive and physical competence subscales are discussed mainly in terms of the young child's tendency to confuse the wish of competency with reality.
This study examined the effects of the type of reasoning on the consequences for sharing on preschoolers' motivations to altruistic behavior. Thirty preschool children watched a videotape of a victim who appealed the damages of disastar. Subsequently, children received either an other-oriented rationale stating that sharing might bring any victim positive consequences, a self-oriented rationale explaining that sharing might bring themselves positive consequences, or a procedure of sharing without any explanation. Children were then given the opportunity to share a token in the presence and in the absence of an adult. The rate of sharing in the condition of a self-oriented reasoning decreaed significantly in an adult presence and in his absence. Other-oriented reasoning elicited a greater rate and a more stable pattern of sharing than the other two conditions. The present finding suggested that other-oriented reasoning motivated an altruistic behavior while self-oriented reasoning motivated an egoistic behavior in preschool children.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of transitivity cue on children's performance to class-inclusion tasks. Based on the score of transitivity test, forty-seven five-year-old children were selected and the practice trials were administered to them. All of them could the not understand the class-inclusion relationship in the pre-test. They were randomly devided into two conditions: the first one was to be given transitivity cue without reinforcement (NR condition) while in the second one verbal reinforcement (R condition) was added in practice trials. The followings are the main results at the post-test of class-inclusion.(a) Children in R condition obtained a higher percentages of correct responses than children in a NR condition.(b) In R condition, the high level group in transitivity development performed more correct responses than the low level group.(c) There was no facilitation effect in R a condition.
This paper presents a survey of the research domain and scale construction of adjective-pairs in a Semantic Differential Method in Japan. 233 papers or articles using Semantic Differential to measure the meanings or images of the concepts were collected. Among the collected articles 99 papers using factor analysis on scales were examined. From the point of factor analysis on the adjective-scales 382 pairs were collected. Also 68 effective scales having high frequencies in the Semantic Differential study were examined. On the bases of these results, 68 proper scales fitting to measure the meanings or images of self-concepts, ideas of children, and personality cognition were hypothetically constructed.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expectancy belief constructs in a sample of high school students. The students completed questionnaires on various expectancy beliefs. Their responses on the performance-outcome expectancy were factor analyzed, and four interpretable factors emerged: Intrinsic Outcome, Extrinsic Outcome, Social Outcome, Interpersonal Outcome. Three of them were comparable to the four dimensions discussed by Henson. In addition, the correlations of the factors with personality variables of self-esteem, internal-external control revealed that the variables were related to the constructs of expectancy beliefs and effort. These findings were seen to be offering valuable suggestion for education settings.