The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the perception of causality and the visual ability to segregate a moving stimulus into two phases of movement in young children. In Exp. I accuracy in judging the temporal order and the velocity difference of two movements in a causal stimulus were used as parameters for the ability of segregation. The results showed that young children who made a correct judgement on the two parameters had a tendency to report the launching response as the causal stimulus. In Exp. II the accuracy in the perception of a moving object, briefly halted halfway through, was used as a parameter in order to confirm the result of Exp. I. It was found that subjects who were classified into the higher ability group in the segregation of movement showed launching responses to causal stimuli more frequently than those who were classified as the lower ability group. In summary, it was concluded that the ability to segregate a movement is an important factor for young children to perceive a causal relation in a stimulus.
This study examined whether a post-feedback interval varied after an error and correct trials, and determined whether PFI affected subject's performance on concept identification tasks. In experiment I, subjects were given the opportunity to pace themselves, and subjects at Cond. II were also given PFI after responses. On the other hand, subjects at Cond. I were immediately given another stimulus after feedback information. The results obtained were as follows: As the amount of task complexity increased, PFI after an error response lengthened, since more complicated information processing was required after a wrong response. The purpose of experiment II was to examine whether PFI affected children's performance. 88 subjects made of kindergarten children, second and fifth graders, participated in this experiment. Results indicated that most of the fifth graders given PFI achieved a learning criterion, thus reducing errors and trials.
The purposes of this study were to clarify the characteristics of psychological changes in middle age from the viewpoints of eight stages of ego identity in Erikson's Epigenetic Scheme (1950), and to specify the reconfirmation process of ego identity and identity status. Method: a sentence completion test (SCT) was carried out by 49 subjects between 40 and 56 years old, and an interview was done to 22 of them. Results: (1) There were positive and negative aspects in the psychological changes in middle age.(2) The process of ego identity reconfirmation in middle age had the following four stages: a) The crisis period with the awareness of the changes of somatic sensation; b) The period of the psychological moratorium; c) The period of modification or turnabout of the life track; and d) The period of ego identity reconfirmed.(3) Four Identity Statuses were specified by the analysis from the viewpoint of Marcia (1964)'s identity status. These findings suggested that middle age was one of the transitional period in life cycle playing an important role for identity achievement.
The purpose of the present study was a) to examine the structure of political attitudes when measured with ar ‘catchphrase’ type scale and b) to investigate the relationships between the level of political interests, political knowledge and political attitudes. Two hundred and seventy nine university students were asked to evaluate short-phrase items expressing the controversial political issues and to answer some questions measuring the level of political interests and political knowledge. The results showed that political attitudes were constructed by following five dimensions: “nationalism”,“maintenance the status quo in politics”,“control”,“militarism” and “innovativism”. The linear relationship between the level of political interests and political attitudes was observed. Those who had high political interests showed more innovative attitudes, while subjects whose political interests were low indicated more conservative ones. No systematic relations were found between the level of political knowledge and political attitudes.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pubertal growth and sex-role formation. In a first study, a sex-role scale for early adolescents, containing 9 masculine items and 6 feminine items, was constructed. In a second study, recognition and acquisition of masculine traits and feminine traits were related to variables concerning pubertal growth. The main results were as follows: 1) Height had little influence on either recognition or acquisition of masculine traits and feminine traits. 2) Mature boys showed significantly higher level of masculine trait acquisition than immature boys. 3) Both boys and girls who were satisfied with the important parts of their bodies showed significantly higher level of masculine and feminine trait acquisition. 4) It was found in both males and females that the level of acquisition of masculine traits and feminine traits were associated with some of the variables concerning pubertal growth, without recognition of them.
Hart and Risley have developed an incidental teaching method to teach the spontaneous use of functional language for mildly language-delayed children within natural environments. Their method appeared advantageous, because it incorporates language into robust, behavioral-like chains already functional in a natural setting. The method in larger population, however, is quite unexplored, especially with severely language-deficient persons, not having large functional behavioral repertoires. The present paper analyzes the incidental-teaching method and its prerequisites, and offers systematic ways to apply this method to more severely language-deficient children. In addition this paper is an attempt to make an extended teaching method of functional language by putting in perspective ecobehavioral analysis of natural environments.